Difference between revisions of "PRE2020 1 Group2"
|Line 245:||Line 245:|
Revision as of 11:30, 27 September 2020
|Name||Student Code||Email address|
The measures taken for prevention of the spread of the coronavirus financially affect all sorts of enterprises. Employees are obligated to work from home, children suddenly had to follow online education, thousands of people lost their jobs et cetera. From one moment to the other, there was a lockdown and it wasn’t allowed to leave your home if it wasn’t for a crucial job, grocery shopping or a for a run (on your own). Social distancing is the new norm.
The Netherlands is slowing building up the ‘1.5m-society’; hotels, restaurants, cafes, gyms, museums, education facilities, offices et cetera are allowed to welcome people again, provided that its visitors keep 1.5m distance at all times. However, there is one sector that is still deeply suffering from the measures taken concerning the coronavirus: the event branch. It is not (and will not be in the near future) allowed to organize events with large numbers of people. Festivals, expositions, fairs, markets, mass sports events are all removed from the calendars. But might there be innovative solutions that would nevertheless make such events possible again? That’s exactly what we are going to focus on during this project!
We are going to develop a device that makes sure all visitors of events always keep safe distance of 1.5m between each other. The principle is rather simple: everybody wears this gadget and when two (or more) come into a radius of 1.5m of each other, an alarming signal will go off. This will serve as a warning to the visitors to remain distanced from each other. Furthermore, the violation of the social distancing rules of this specific individual will be registered. The event-organizers could decide to intervene after for instance five warnings.
We are going to find and create/model a way to make dance-events possible again in corona-times. It will look as follows: attendees of the event can 'hire' a circular island with their household. All 'island-inhabitants' wear headphones through which music sounds. The visitors are allowed to move freely as long as they remain on their islands. The distance of every attendee to the middle of the circle is continously tracked. Once the distance from the attendee to the reference point exceeds the radius he/she will be warned. An anoying beep will disturb the music, stimulating the attendee to go back to his/her island. This way customers will remain in their bubble and households will not get mixed up. This idea will be further elaborated below and will be refered to as second idea.
The current COVID-19 situation only allows for sit-concerts and -festivals. Dance parties are not allowed because everybody has to remain seated as much as possible. The event branch is financially hit and does not have any certainty about when the usual events will be allowed again. Interviews with the festival branch revealed that the sit-festivals are okay according to the circumstances, so here are no substantial problems. However, there is a big wish for being able to move freely and dance. This is not allowed at the moment because keeping distance while dancing is hard. Therefore, goal of this project is to come up with an innovative and safe way to make the organization of dancing festivals possible in times in which the coronavirus is lurking.
To be more specific: we focus on outdoor festivals of any genre. From hardstyle, to hardcore, to electronic dance music, to house, to jazz, all festivals where dancing is desirable. This also means that the target group is very varied: from teenagers, to headbangers, to salsa dancing grandfathers.
What else has to be added here?
- How many people?
Visitors of events
The direct users of this design will be visitors of events like concerts, festivals, expositions et cetera. When you visit an event at which this technology will be used, you will have no choice but to accept the terms. A downside for the introduction of the social distancing device may be that a ticket for an event will get more expensive, as for every customer a gadget must be bought.
The event managers will thus create islands for househoulds or even for groups of friends (just like friends, not from the same households, are allowed to sit at a table within 1.5 meters in a restaurant). This way the organization can do crowd control to make sure that groups of people respects the rules of social distancing. The organization thus uses the techonologies to create a safe environment for its visitors, while allowing them to dance.
Artists indirectly also make use of the social distancing gadget. This technology allows for a big step towards festivals like we used to know them. Plus, the current sit-concerts discriminate against certain groups of artists. For example, singer-songwriter suffer significantly less from the measures than dj's (house, dance, hardstyle et cetera). This tool will mainly help this second group of artists.
Not many articles have been written on the effects of the quarantine, social distancing and social isolation, as life is far from back to normal. Once more time has gone by, the real psychological impact will become clear. However, there are some first researches in which provisional psychological effects have become clear. The lockdown-measures prevented the virus from spreading on a large scale, but the consequences for isolated individuals will be a problem in the future. Research of Hiremath et al showed that the measures causes psychological problems like depression, anxiety and panic disorder . There have even been reported suicides due to psychological effects of social isolement and all other inconveniences . General research on social isolation also reveals that social isolation evidently harms mental health . Naturally, we need social interaction, which is exactly what was deprived from us in lockdown. Coming together and making fun at a concert or sports event could significantly contribute to minimizing the psychological problems that are caused by the corona crisis. Of course, events are already possible in an adapted version. However, the majority of the festival sector will remain highly restricted as long as visitors are not allowed to stand and move freely.
The local authorities are responsible for deciding which events can take place in their region and which ones are not allowed to take place. Therefore, with the development of this gadget it is aimed to persuade local authorities to allow events at which people are allowed to stand and dance.
First of all, if a social distancing gadget for dancing events will be nationally introduced, the government will definitely have a say about it. The government of course has to power to keep such a product from the market. However, suppose the gadget will be approved by the government, then it will be up to the local authorities to decide whether to allow events during the corona crisis, as the government has given the responsibility for the regulation of events to the local authorities. However, if the number of infections (and/or hospital admission and deaths) rises significantly, the government has the power to cancel all events (from a certain number of people, for instance 250 people), like it did in the beginning of the corona crisis. The government thus can always take control.
Obviously, if this device gets through the testing phases and it is approved by all governmental institutions, it must be manufactured on a larger scale.
After the product has been manufactured, it will by supplied to event organizations by logistic companies.
The introduction of this gadget will affect security companies. These last months the number of security employees in places where many people come together has risen significantly. The introduction of this product might change the role of security at events. They no longer have to enforce within the 'bubbles', but mainly show the attendees the walking routes and signing towards the bar and bathrooms.
Although restaurants and cafés are opening their doors and summer-evenings are being spent on the terrace, the festival-summer is entirely cancelled. The social isolation is deeply affecting not only children and young adults, but also the elderly. Everybody longs for entertainment, like we were used to. Therefore, it would be a relief, not only economically, but also psychologically for the society if the event sector could resume activities.
For the users it was decided that a survey would be a good way to determine what the users’ needs are. The survey contained 10 questions about events and the idea of being monitored by the organization. The target group is attendees of events. The survey was done anonymously and online via SurveyMonkey.
1. How often, in a normal year, do you attend an event?
|1 to 2||22.22%||8|
|2 to 5||41,67%||15|
This question’s purpose was to get to know the respondents. Our respondents usually go to an event in a normal year. This is good news because those people are our target group. So, all the data that is gathered in this survey is relevant for our user study.
2. How many events did you attend this year?
|1 to 2||47.22%||17|
|2 to 5||13,89%||5|
Here a shift is noticed. Some respondents did not go to any event this year. Still most of the users did go to an event this year. The follow up question was what kind of measurements the event took to maintain the distance and safety of the attendees.
3. If you went to an event this year. What measurements did they take regarding Covid-19?
Here an error was found in the question. Three respondents answered the question with the fact that the events were before the outbreak of covid-19. So those answers were not useful. The most notable answers are that the events are a lot smaller, users had to stick to a fixed table with 4 people. One extreme was that the temperature was measured before entering the event. Almost every answer contained disinfection.
4. If you went to an event this year. Could you keep enough distance to the other attendees? And did you actively pay attention to keeping distance?
For the first question of 21 respondents 17 said yes to this question. So, keeping distance was possible due to their being enough space. The remaining respondents said that there was not enough space. Some noted that in the room there was enough space but when entering the toilet this was impossible to do. To the second question 5 respondents said that they actively paid attention to the distance. The remaining respondents noted that after some alcohol consumption they did care less about the distance. This resulted in not paying attention and violating the rule of keeping 1.5 meters distance.
5. Would you wear a device which measures your distance to others to attend an event?
Surprisingly most of the respondents would wear a device that would measure the distance. This gives room to design such device.
6. May this wearable give you warnings, via vibrations, when you come to close?
Same results as with question 5. This seems logical due to the fact that the same respondents find it a good idea.
7. Can you think of other feedback systems you would like?
This question was added to get some feedback from the respondents. It is possible that they have a good idea that was not accounted for by the research team. Most of the respondents answered no to this question.
8. After receiving three warnings the security will come and will ask why you are not adhering to the rules, without a good reason you will be removed from the festival. Would you as an attendee agree with these terms?
9. When answered no. Why not?
A lot of respondents said that this is too harsh. It is very error sensitive in the sense that if someone else comes close to you are you then to blame for his or her mistake. So, how can this problem be solved that it is fair to every user. The respondents said it is fair when this is accounted for but otherwise most of them would not support such a system. This is something the research time should think about. 3 people did not support it at all, this because of the money lost.
10. Would you prefer such a system over standing in a given spot which you cannot leave? Why?
The main reason was the feeling of more freedom at a festival. The remaining respondents liked the fixed spot because of the safety advantages they thought it had. It cannot go wrong when your spot is fixed.
To conclude this user research it can be noted that most of the respondents would like such a device that gives them more freedom. Some respondents are skeptical about if this is a system that can be maintained by an organization, however, they are open to the idea. One problem to take away from this research is how to make it fair when somebody has to be removed from the event. This is of course error sensitive and this has to be looked at by the research team.
Raw data: 
Second survey Because the idea has shifted to using stationary islands to track the attendees it was decided to do a new user research. Again, via a survey.
When attending events. Do you usually walk around a lot or do you stay more at a fixed location at the stage? Choose the option according to your normal behaviour that resembles you the most.
|Stay at a fixed location||42.9%||6|
The results are slightly curved to the walking around option. Desirable for us would be that the attendees would like to stay at a fixed location. Although this result was expected, a festival is an experience so getting food, drinks and sitting somewhere with your friends is all part of the experience.
Would you like to attend an event where you have to stay in your predefined area in which you can freely move?
Surprisingly most respondents answered yes to this question. This shows that the respondents are open for a different kind of event.
Would you like to attend an event where you have to wear headphones that monitors your movement?
Only one person answered no to this. The reason was that this person wants to listen to loud music. However, this can also be achieved by putting your headphones on hard.
When leaving the given spot the music, via your headphones, will stop playing. Would this encourage you to stay in your spot?
11 people out of the 14 answered yes to this question. The biggest problem was that some wanted to stop listening to the music. When, for example, getting beer or talking to other people. This needs to be looked at. It is undesirable for the organization that everybody puts off their headphones to just talk with other attendees.
How would you experience an island which you cannot leave? With exception to going to the toilet or the bar
|The feeling of it being a good solution||64,3%||9|
|The feeling of being mildly restricted||21.4%||3|
|The feeling of being in a cage||14,3%||2|
As can be seen most respondents think it is a good idea. Some have the feeling of being mildly restricted. And 2 of the14 have the feeling of being in a cage. This last group is undesirable. Attendees should never have the feeling of being caged. The responses vary. Some say that the attendees have no choice. It is this kind of festival or nothing. Another one responded that it gets very anxious if he or she needs to stay at a fixed location. These are things to consider. The organization should be clear on the amount of tracking that is done and make the attendees feel comfortable with the idea.
Are you willing to pay an extra 5 to 10 euros to make such events happen?
11 out of 14 respondents responded yes to this question. The reasons why some would not pay the extra 5 to 10 euros were that these restrictions do not benefit towards the fun factor. Another one said that the organizers should pay for these extra costs.
With how many people would you like to attend such events? (including yourself)
Most respondents answered that they would like to go with 6 people. This would be the best option for the festival organizers too. This way the festival ground can be arranged most efficiently.
What is your general idea about this solution?
Most respondents said they liked the idea. Some respondents were skeptical about if it really was going to work. Some have pitched other ideas to make the event more fun. For example, making the cost of the ticket higher because of the costs of the tracker but in return offer a free beer. Attendees will have more eye for the free beer.
Some Pro Event organizers
In this crisis it becomes clear that many sectors profit from the organization of events. Sport athletes, artists, bands, orchestras, catering and all organizations that are responsible for the setting up of events suddenly were busy cancelling their events and paying back people’s money instead of making money. Many enterprises are in deep crisis or already went bankrupt .
To find out what the exact problem is in the event sector (it could be the lower number of customers, the social distancing, the hygiene et cetera) we contacted some event agencies, festival organizers and concert halls. This is a summary of the answers we received to the questions via mail.
Response via mail
In this project we are focussing on big events out in the open air with a larger number of people. If adhering to the social distancing and hygiene rules, what is/are the problem(s) that make(s) the organisation of these events so hard? Is this for instance the social distancing at the entrance/exit or the bar or at the stages. Or is it something else?
An employee of an event agency says that he doesn't believe in 1.5 meter-events. At a festival you ought to be able to freely dance, sing and drink. He refers to a research of Mojo concerts, in which the main conclusion was that events without keeping distance out in the open air are not as dangerous as is being thought. It states that more than 96% of the infections happens inside and that super spreading events also always happened inside . He argues that festivals and concert should be allowed without social distancing, as the chance of getting ill is very little if you're younger than 45 years. Everybody has to take responsibility and when in doubt: stay home.
The organizer of the festival Bontgenoten confirms that organizing events with 1.5 meters distance is almost impossible. He also mentions another problem: standing is not allowed. Furthermore, capacity drops drastically. Another problem is alcohol consumption: during the day the 1.5 meters is mostly respected. However, when it gets dark and the alcohol kicks in, visitors are having a harder time respecting the distance.
Do you have any ideas about how to control the crowd in order to make sure the 1.5 meter distance is being respected? You can think of cameras, an app or other sorts of gadgets.
The organizer of Bontgenoten says that they haven't thought of crowd control. They use security to make the visitors aware of the social distancing rules and motivate visitors to adhere to these. He says that this is a cheaper way than using electronics for crowd control.
Do you consider the following gadget desirable at a festival? All customers get a gadget when they enter the festival. This gadget continuously tracks the distance to other gadgets of other people. If two (or more) gadgets come within a radius of 1.5 meter an alarming signal will go off. Too many warnings for violating the social distancing rules means exclusion from the festival. Another function of this gadget could be that we would program it in such a way that people from the same household do not have to keep 1.5 meter distance. What do you think?
The employee of the event agency worries about friends: they are not from the same household, but probably do not want to keep 1.5 meter distance.
Do you have any other ideas how we could possibly help the eventbranch?
The employee of the event agency mentions a quick coronatest. Everyone has to undergo a coronatest, of which the result is known in two minutes. Everyone that tests negatively is allowed to enter, the rest has to go home.
The organizer of Bontgenoten also thinks of a scan that can detect whether a visitor has (had) the coronavirus and/or has been vaccinated. Another idea is a 'body wash' that every customer has to do before entering the terrain.
This was all feedback we got via email. We also had an appointment with an employee of the Effenaar, an (indoors) event location in Eindhoven. She gave us insight in problemsome situation they are in at the moment. A summary of the conversation is written below.
What do you consider to be the biggest problem for organizing events in the current covid-19 situation?
In short, the following measures and its consequences are killing for the Effenaar:
First of all, the 1.5 meter distance rule drastically brings down capacity. In their biggest hall they can normally receive 1300 guests. The government now has the policy that indoor locations can receive as many people as possible provided that enough distance is kept. For the Effenaar, this means that they can sell 50 duo-tickets. Obviously, this makes shows far from profitable. They need at least 900 guests to be cost-effective. The cancelling of shows and the lower capacity has lead to dismissal of more than half of the staff.
Secondly, the 1.5 meter has to be respected at all times, also at the entrance, exit, bar and bathrooms. The Effenaar has introduced walking routes and signing. However, guests are having a hard time following these routes. The Effenaar also organized some outdoor events on 1.5 meters with a larger number of people. This raises one more challenge: crowd control. How do you boost the flow of guests?
Furthermore, at all events guests have to sit. It is not allowed to stand, because violation of the social distancing is more likely when standing. Although these sitconcerts might not be the biggest problem for singer-songwriters, a dance-, house- or hardstyle-concert without being able to dance is almost unimaginable.
We also talked about the tracking device (first idea). This is the feedback we received on that:
Just beeping or lightening up is not enough. The lightening can be ignored easily and the beeping might not be heard because of the music. Therefore, vibrating is the better option.
How do we make sure that people do not take off the bracelet? On the other side, making sure that the bracelet can't be taken off might give an anxious feeling. Do guests have a choice?
About the idea of this device, she said the following: guests book a ticket for entertainment, relaxation. Continuously being buzzed because you accidently pass someone in the toilets is far from relaxing. Also when extra features are added such as only alarming the person that is responsible for violating the distance rule (by tracking movements) and raising the threshold of seconds for receiving a warning visitors will still have an uncomfortable feeling continuously being tracked. A better alternative would be to send the warnings to security, who can approach the guests and remind him or her of the rules.
Last but not least, it is useful to design this tool? It is now possible to organize events with the current measures. Such a tool would only be useful if it would enable the Effenaar to scale up capacity or when standing concerts would be allowed. This device will probably not have an added value at this moment.
An alternative she came up with is to make this tracking device not for the audience but for the artists. They also have to maintain 1.5 meter distance at the stage. Moreover, the distance between the singer and the audience must always exceed 3 meters.
In conclusion, the most pressing issue is the downfall of the capacity, which is unfortunately something we can not solve as long als the social distancing rules are in effect. Moreover, the sit concerts are 'okay' right now. This can be regulated satisfactorily. However, thinking ahead and making dancing events possible again would absolutely make a difference for event organizers! Together we came up with the following idea:
In order to enable dancing at a distance stationary dance-islands can be created. This means that every guest gets a circle in which he or she can freely move. Those circles will of course be 1.5 meters apart from each other. In the middle of the circle will be a reference point and the customer will wear a tool that continuously tracks the distance to the reference point. If this distance exceeds the maximum radius of the circle a warning will be given. As light and sound can be easily missed/ignored at a festival, another way needs to be found to make sure that the behaviour of the user is influenced. To this end, headphones will be introduced (just like they are used now in silent disco's). When exceeding the radius of your circle an annoying sound will disturb your music or the music will even be paused compeletely. When going to the bar or toilet, you can take off your headphones and security knows that you are heading to the bar or toilet. The annoying sound/pausing the music discourages leaving your island. It is also possible to make the radii of the islands a bit bigger and allow more people of one household in one circle. This way you can scale up and make it more fun for visitors.
|Notifying the user that he or she left their island.||This can be done via turning off the music on the headphones. The event being a silent disco event the user will probably notice when the headphones are off. There is some room for errors here. For example, putting the headphones off.|
|It should not be possible to ignore the signal.||Making the event a silent disco event ensures this. When users put their headphones off they cannot listen to the music anymore. Again, the same problem arises as with requirement 1. The user may want to stop listening to music for a minute or so.|
|Center of the island should be stationary.||Otherwise people would move around too much. When creating dynamic islands, there will be many violations, be it coincidentally.|
|Center of the island should not be easily removable.||Otherwise people might want to grab it with them and move to another location. Again, this will result in more violations and potentially messing up the system.|
|Attendees should not be able to switch islands.||When this would be possible everybody can just switch with each other when they want to talk to someone else. The group with whom you attend stays the same for the entire event.|
|It should not be possible to tamper with the tracker by the attendees.||This to prevent false data or potentially turning of the tracker.|
|The tracking system should adhere to the privacy rules.
||Tracking attendees can come with complications regarding maintaining the privacy of the attendees. It should be clear to the attendees what the festival is doing with their data and the attendees should agree with these terms.
|The tracker should be able to measure distance to island-members of the same household.||The anchor in the center of the island should only be able to detect the members of the household of that island.|
|It should be affordable for events.||In the long run the festival organizers should benefit from the investment. This can be accomplished via various ways. For example, via money but it could also be via positive publication.|
|The tracker should be able to stop the music of the attendees who are violating the rules.||The tracker should be able to stop the music. By stopping the music at the source or switching of the headphone.|
|The organizers of the event should be able to see who is violating the rules.||When an attendee violates the rules too often he or she needs to be removed from the event.|
|The visitors should not feel uncomfortable being tracked when not violating the distance rule.||The visitors should not have the feeling of being followed. They should have a feeling of being free to move, although this is restricted.|
|A device to order drinks that then can be brought to the island.||This to reduce the amount of wandering by the attendees.|
|Having an error rate of zero.||This is hard to realize in 8 weeks.|
|Making a physical product.||It is more fun and better to make a physical model. However, due to time being restricted and meeting physically is hard due to covid-19.|
|Making it possible that friends can go together without being in one household.||This is not up to us to decide. The government needs to make this possible. It is tolerated at the moment.|
|A device that people could use to let the staff know that they went to the toilet.||This is not so hard to make. However, the attendees should not be able to abuse this button. This is hard to realize.|
|Only 8 weeks to design a solution.||This project only lasts 8 weeks. There is so much you can do in 8 weeks, this means that the solution would almost certainly not be perfect.|
|Privacy laws.||It is not possible to just track visitors according to the GDPR. It should be clear to the attendees what is done with the data the organizers gather.|
|Costs||Being a student team it is not possible to order the best tracking systems resulting in a suboptimal design.|
Detailed description of idea
In this section a detailed description of the idea will be given.
Festival organizations that use this tool do not sell individual tickets, but group-tickets. If you are from the same household or a groups of friends (we will elaborate on this further below) you can book a dance-island. This island is a stationary circle with a table in the middle. The radius of the circle depends on the number of people on the island. Every attendee receives a headphone at the entrance through which music sounds. The household/group of friends will be sent to their island of which the periphery has been drawn on the ground. This is 'their' island because their headphones are coupled to the reference point in the middle of the table on their island. This coupling is done via a tracker on the headphones that continuously tracks the distance between the reference point and the headphones. If this distance exceeds the radius of the circle, the user of the headphones will receive a warning. This will be done by disturbing the music with an annoying beep. This discourages the 'island-inhabitants' to leave their island.
Of course, you are permitted to leave your island for going to the bar or toilet, provided that you adhere to the walking routes. Security will enforce this. Attendees going to the toilet or bar pass the perimeter and the music through their headphones will be paused. When going to the toilet they can either leave their headphones at their island or hang them around their neck. This way security can recognize attendees heading for a drink of for the bathrooms. In conclusion, this tool will focus on what happens on the islands and not on what happens outside. This is because festivals organizations have already taken steps to manage the crowd outside of the circles (security, walking routes, signing et cetera).
What has to be added here?
- How many islands?
Figure1. Abstract design of the dancing island.
/*It will be added once I know the parameters more. */
In order to design the size of dancing island circles, the approximate movement range when a human dance is needed. Instead of looking for a paper, what size a company who has a dancing related product recommends as a dancing movement. Home. (2019, September 16). The company says a person needs at least 0.836 square meters. Then the calculation to get a size of different dancing islands circles is as follows:
For 1 person: 0.83612 square meters = x^2. So for one person, x = 0.91 meters should be a diameter.
For 2 person: 1,67225 square meters = x^2. So the circle diameter should be, x = 1.4 meters.
For 4 person: 3,34451 square meters = x^2. So the circle diameter should be, x = 1.8 meters.
For 6 person: 5,01676 square meters = x^2. So the circle diameter should be, x = 2.3 meters.
/* I calculated without putting a table in the centre, if we put a table within each circle, then the radius should be increased as much as the table's radius. */
/* Question: How many will there be of each dancing islands for 6 people, 4 people and 2 people? Because I think people would come with a lot of people, so the number of islands that allowing 4 and 6 will be more? */
/*Incorrect terrain size. Further research*/
Detailed description of the technical aspects
We need to be able to measure the distance between each headphone and the center of the island that headphone belongs to. To accomplish this we’ll make use of ultrawideband transceivers, one on every headphone and island center. Multiple ways of measuring the distance exist, the two that would make sense for our use case are by measuring the time of arrival or the round trip time of a transmission between a headphone and the island center. From this time we can calculate the distance between the two, since the propagation time of a transmission through air is a constant. To measure the time of arrival, one transceiver would transmit to all headphones the time of transmission, each headphones would compare this to the time of arrival. Such calculation would require a synchronized clock between the two which is not likely to be available in our case. Thus we calculate the round trip time: the headphones poll the island sensor to which the island's center responds. By comparing the time from the transmission of the poll request and the island's center response, the RTT and thus the distance to the island's center can be calculated. If no response is received from the island within a certain threshold we can assume that the headphone is too far away and thus still outside of the boundaries of the island. RTT measuring introduces more room for error however due to the time taken to handle a message weighing twice as much when compared to TOA measuring.
There are multiple headphones to each island and multiple islands to each event. It is therefore necessary that a headphone sensor’s poll request is responded to by the right island’s sensor and that an island sensor’s poll acknowledgement is also handled by the correct headphone sensor. Therefore each island and headphone should be identifiable by an unique identifying number. Polling requests will be accompanied by the sending headphone’s ID and the accompanying island’s ID, the same holds for polling acknowledgements. A device will only handle a received transmission if their ID matches up to the ID in a transmission, be it a headphone listening for an acknowledgement or an island's center listening for a polling request. Therefore it is ensured that communication between sensors is only between the intended sensors, it can't happen that the wrong island responds to a polling request or that a polling acknowledgement is handled by the wrong headphone.
The development of this product requires some more depthly thinking about the pros and cons of this technology and about possible problems that might come up when implementing it.
The advantages for the users have been described above. The social distancing gadget will make standing events possible again in times in which corona is amongst us, which means that customers can have entertainment, while event organizers and artists profit from this.
Not only the advantages, but also the ethical disadvantages must be paid attention to. Obviously, this tool only gives the desired result if every visitor on the terrain carries a device. As a consequence, each visitor must accept to wear a gadget and remain within his/her circle as much as possible. This means that someone who does not want to be monitored all the time, cannot be admitted to the festival terrain. So customers have no choice but to compromise to wearing this gadget, otherwise they will be excluded form the event. It can be argued that this not entirely ethically neat. However, we think that this is the only way to make (dancing) events fully corona-proof (with of course extra measures for hygiene). For the second questionnaire: are attendees willing to wear such a headphone that constantly monitors your movements?
Secondly, the dance-islands might feel like 'cages'. Second questionnaire: ask how users would experience this?
Besides the ethical considerations, some practical things must also be paid attention to. Obviously, festival organizations have to buy these technologies or rent them. What are the consequences for the users? Second questionnaire: are they willing to pay an extra 5/10 euros?
Additionally, how do we make sure that attendees do not switch headphones and this way switch islands? The goal of the dance-islands and the distance in between these islands is that households do not mix up. All headphones are coupled to a specific reference point. This way it can be verified at the exit whether you have the right headphones. By asking a deposit (of 10 euros) at the entrance and checking whether you hand in the right headphones, switching headphones will hopefully be reduced. Furthermore, security will of course keep an eye on the headphones and will intervene if they see attendees exchanges headphones.
Lastly, to make sure that customers do not remove the tracker we attach them to their headphones. When going to a festival you want to hear the music so the tracker will be part of the deal. We expect that attendees will not mess with their headphones as they risk losing their music. We also hope that the tracker being on the headphones will give a less anxious feeling of 'Big Brother is watching you' than the tracker being around your wrist, as you can take of your headphones when going to the bar or toilet. The deposit that is charged on the headphones will also restrain tampering with the tracker. Moreover, the reference point in the middle of the island should also not be easily tampered with. To this end, it will be hidden and tightened to the table in the centre of the island. Additionally, the switch-off button will be not be easily accessible. Festival organisators can also chose to ask a deposit for this too.
What has to be added here?
- Extra costs for users
Face mask duty
From the 5th of August till the 31st of August 2020 there was a face mask duty in certain busy spots in Amsterdam and Rotterdam. (https://www.rtlnieuws.nl/nieuws/nederland/artikel/5175421/mondkapje-coronavirus-plicht-drukke-gebieden-amsterdam-rotterdam and https://nos.nl/artikel/2345715-amsterdam-en-rotterdam-stoppen-met-mondkapjesplicht.html) This rule was implemented by the mayors of the two cities. According to professor of law and society Jan Brouwer of the state university of Groningen and professor of constitutional law Wim Voermans of the university of Leiden the face mask duty is legally not possible. (https://nos.nl/artikel/2342362-deskundigen-verplicht-dragen-mondkapje-is-wettelijk-niet-mogelijk.html) According to Voermans the duty is in violation of article 10 of the Dutch Constitution, the right to privacy. As Wim Voermans says “all colleagues agree: this is not possible”. However, in public transport in the Netherlands there is a face mask duty. As Brouwer says: “The Passenger Transport Act of 2000 contains a separate part on the basis of which the carrier can impose requirements on the wearing of a face mask. It is the private carrier who take the initiative.” (https://www.omropfryslan.nl/nieuws/978741-hoogleraar-recht-algemene-mondkapjesplicht-kan-juridisch-gezien-niet) According to mr-online.nl an employer could impose the face mask duty to his/her employees based on the right to instruction. Provided that this is reasonable and the employee has no (constitutional) objections to this. It could be seen as an extra dress code. (https://www.mr-online.nl/mondkapjes-op-de-werkvloer-verplichten-verbieden-of-toestaan) It is unclear if it would be possible for an event organization to impose a face mask duty onto its visitors. However, regarding the coronabeeper duty, it is also possible to work with wristbands duty as a way of entering the festival and for e.g. getting alcohol, so it might be possible to enforce a coronabeeper duty.
Enforcement of coronabeeper duty
The problem with enforcement by security workers of the festival is that they are limited in available resources. BOA’s are already having a difficult time in the Netherlands regarding enforcement because of rebellious citizens, so security workers can get a difficult time as well. Especially when people are drinking alcohol, they could be less cooperative regarding the social distancing. Then there is also the support base which can decrease and can be unstable. When the incident with minister Grapperhaus happened for example, a lot of people where angry and this incident made enforcement more difficult for policemen and BOA’s. The same could apply for security workers. Just like with restaurants and bars, it is possible for the government to keep the restaurants and bars responsible for making sure all guests follow the distance rules. Out of fear that bars and restaurants would get fines, some bars and restaurants decided to not open up again. (https://www.ad.nl/binnenland/zorgen-om-naleving-coronaregels-in-horeca-meerdere-zaken-gesloten~a8b19d9d/) If these restaurants and bars have difficulty with enforcement, imagine having a festival with way more people. That would be more difficult and it is imaginable that festival organizations would be even more afraid of getting fines. And suppose such controls would take place and the government inspectors say the rules cannot be enforced then it is not only the case that the organization gets a fine. It might also be the case that the festival has to end. Of course this would be a huge disappointment for the visitors and a lot of costs for the organization e.g. not being able to make money from visitors buying drinks, but being tied to contracts with caterers, security etc. Also prior to all of this, visitors might not go to a festival as easily when they know they might be send away because of people not adhering to the rules and government inspection with a closure as a result. Furthermore, the government has to give permission for the festival to take place and given that reinforcement is so difficult, the government will probably not give permission.
Ideas to overcome the problems mentioned.
Idea 1: coronaproof equipment for security
Security wears face shields, gloves and possibly other equipment to be able to physically remove someone.
- Police cannot respect the distance rule when doing an arrest, but the police is excepted from respecting the rule. (https://nos.nl/collectie/13838/artikel/2331724-bij-aanhoudingen-kunnen-we-geen-anderhalve-meter-afstand-houden) Security workers are not an essential occupancy that would easily get such an exemption by the government. It is unclear if they would get such an exemption, but it is possible to argue that the government wants to grant as little exceptions as possible to stop the spread of the virus.
- Also police can put on a spit mask on an arrestee if he/she does not want to cooperate and wants to spit on the police. I do not think security workers would get such a competence.
- In case a situation escalates with a lot of people, police can call for assistance, while this is harder for festival security. Or you would need a lot of security, but this is costly.
- When a group of people does not adhere to the 1.5 meter distance it is possible that security can contribute to the spread of the coronavirus, since there might not be enough time to clean the gloves for example.
Idea 2: blacklist for offenders
If a festival attendee offends the 1.5 meter distance rule, then security will be called and the visitors gets an official warning. If the visitor offends the distance rule again he/she will be send away from the festival. If this visitor offends the distance rule and does not cooperate with security, he/she will be put on a blacklist for all festivals and possibly other events for the coming year for example.
- What if it happens by accident, but security cannot check this and people do not cooperate? Then bad publicity for festival
- What if innocent visitors are put on the blacklist, because of bad organization of a specific festival? Then this person cannot go to all other festivals and this would be very bad publicity for the branch as a whole. Therefore cooperation between festival and events organizations might be unrealistic.
- There are also privacy concerns. Restaurants and bars for instance are not allowed to check for identity cards, purely for checking names. “Guests can therefore give up a fake name”, says director of branch association Catering Industry of the Netherlands Dirk Beljaarts. (https://www.parool.nl/nederland/horeca-sceptisch-over-registratieplicht-voor-maandag-lukt-dit-nooit~bc0b4a2b/) According to the Dutch Authority of Personal Data (AP) it is unclear if a guest is allowed to be refused if he/she does not cooperate. Looking at the catering industry, also for the festival industry it will be practically impossible to enforce such a blacklist.
Costs of the distance islands
The music festival industry is very diverse. The festivals can be distinguished in the groups public, nonprofit and private festivals . There are private festivals, like Coachella that made a gross profit of $114.6 million in 2017 , but this was the first festival to earn more than $100 million. There are also a lot of festivals that are nonprofit. In general profits are not very high in the festival industry and it is a risky business, since ticket sales can differ dependent on weather circumstances for example . In the Netherlands there were about 18.2 million festival visitors in 2018  and about 1.4 million music festival visitors in 2015, of which about 450.000 pay an entrance fee and 950.000 visit a free festival . The free festivals rely a lot on sponsoring and subsidies. There are also quite a few non-profit festivals in the Netherlands, that make use of these subsidies, one of them is Woo Hah!, a hiphop festival in Tilburg. In 2015 it sold 5500 tickets and made a revenue of €611.000 and had costs of €610.700 . In the case that this festival would be organized with much lower visitor numbers, the festival would need a huge increase in sponsoring and subsidies, which is unlikely to happen.
TODO possibly higher prices per ticket, since more ‘exclusive’ (because capacity) and people could not go to a festival for a very long time?
Silent disco rental companies
There are quite a lot of silent disco rental companies. These companies rent out their headphones for prices around €3.50 - €5 per headphone. Suppose festival organizations would pass on these prices in their tickets there would be no additional cost for the festival organization. However, our product also has a price tag. The Dutchbands’ Watpod alone costs €75 and that is without the added value of our product. But even if this price can be passed on to the customer as well, the question of dealing with lower visitor numbers remains. There will be less visitors, but a big terrain size remains, while there is less income for food, merchandise, camping etc. Under normal circumstances, without corona, there are already a lot of uncertainites for festival organizers. Only the weather can have a big influence on the number of tickets sold. With corona, uncertainty has only increased. Normally prices can be based on willingness to pay by the customers, but right now it is very hard to get to know this willingness, since it is unknown how festivals can look like with the 1.5m so it is hard to estimate willingness and therefore it is hard to come up with good prices to finance the whole festival. Besides willingness to pay, there is the issue with permits. Suppose a festival could get a permit to organize a festival in a few months’ time, but then the number of infections increases in this time and with that the measures. Could the permit be withdrawn or actually could the permit be given out in the first place?
TODO find out criteria for permits and period between receiving permit and organizing event
All this uncertainty makes it very unattractive to organize festivals in these times. Our product will probably not add any value in that cas
Due to the outbreak of global pandemic COVID 19, there have been many efforts to keep up to date with technologies to enhance devices or systems e.g. Analysis of big data, Artificial intelligence, Blockchain. Stuff that has been already made are such as a real-time tracking map, modelling studies of the viral activity in each country using a database, active communication between people and public institutes using social media platforms, the thermal imaging–enabled facial recognition system and algorithms running on positive cases of COVID 19.  Our group's projects also want to follow the technological trend according to the pandemic. This project is aimed at developing a wristband/watch that can alert and remind the reasonable social distance (1.5m) between people at a festival or an event venue.
Technologies for social distancing
A social distancing has been introduced to reduce the spread of the pandemic at the early stage.  However, there have been difficulties to implement a social distancing in large-scale measures. To mitigate these difficulties, a lot of effective technologies are used to facilitate social distancing in practice. e.g. AI, thermal, computer vision, Inertial sensors, ultrasound and visible light. The referenced paper above also contains information about wireless technologies and open issues. Other than this, there is an enhanced technology regarding deep learning framework for monitoring social distancings. This framework uses YOLO v3 detection model and Deepsort to separate people from the background at a surveillance camera and tracking people with IDs and boxes. However, it is hard to implement on a small device we are planning to make. Thus, this idea is not going to be used in our project.
Ultra-wideband for location detection
This paper conducts research about a comparison with Bluetooth low energy (BLE) and Ultrawide-band (UWB) technology. There are two main reasons for using Ultrawide-band(UWB) instead of Bluetooth(BLE) on this paper. The first reason is that the UWB time of flight is better than the BLE receive signal strength indication. The paper shows the second reason by stating an industrial trend in using location technology at the company, Apple. Nevertheless, the company has been promoting for BLE for years, it has replaced IBeacon BLE technology by UWB. This is because UWB has brought the possibility to use more applications and higher quality. Also, the location accuracy and data rates are higher than BLE since UWB operates in a wide frequency range (approximately 500 MHz) while BLE does in around 2 MHz.
The paper introduces a concept of indoor positioning technique and provides an analysis of SWOT which is strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Also, it states various positioning technologies e.g. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) - which can be replaced or improved by UWB -, Infrared (IR), Ultrasonic, Zigbee, Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), Cellular Based, Bluetooth, Dead Reckoning, Image-Based Technologies and Pseudolites and it explains why UWB has gained attention as a positioning skill. At the intro part, it compares Indoor positioning systems (IPSs) and Global Positioning System (GPS). IPSs keeps updating data continuously in real-time but signals attenuate and scatter to go through solid obstacles using GPS. With our project, it is stated that the product is aimed at an outdoor event or festival. However, assuming that data can be updated more quickly and that people's movements are not as extensive as military operations or satellite orbits in space, IPSs would be more suitable to apply than GPS. Furthermore, in terms of the cost, UWB is also cheaper than other technologies and consumes less power.
UWB has an accuracy of 5 to 10 cm compared to roughly 5m accuracy for Wi-Fi and Bluetooth. The data rate of UWB has been adjusted to 6 to 8 MB/s in contrast to the past in which it was 100 MB/s, for better use for mobile devices. Also UWB consumes less power than Wi-Fi. However a disadvantage of UWB is that Wi-Fi and Bluetooth are better at interacting with mobile devices. 
Dual patch microstrip antenna
Dual patch microstrip antenna  does not require a physical connection between the antenna compartment and the feed line. Also, a combination of slot coupling technique and the two-layer electromagnetically coupled patch (EMCP)antenna offers advantages that the device can be used in wideband and experiences a low cross-polarisation. The impedance bandwidth of the microstrip could be improved when a modest horizontal displacement between the two patches are given.
Al-Mahturi, Ayad & Rahim, Ruzairi. (2016). ULTRASONIC SENSOR FOR DISTANCE MEASUREMENT
One technique that can be used to measure the distance between different objects is with ultrasonic sensor. This technique is based on measuring the pulse reflection time. So, how long it takes to get the echo from the original sound. Ultrasonic sound is not hearable by humans. Usually a normal ultrasonic sensor can measure a maximum distance of 2.5 meters. A downfall of this technique is that the refresh rate of the sensor is low.
Shen, J. S., Bao, Y., Gan, W., Guo, W., Zhang, M., & Wang, G. (2018). Millimeter-accuracy structural deformation monitoring using stand-alone gps: case study in beijing, china. Journal of Surveying Engineering, 144(1). https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)SU.1943-5428.0000242
N. Idris, A. M. Suldi, J. R. A. Hamid and D. Sathyamoorthy, "Effect of radio frequency interference (RFI) on the Global Positioning System (GPS) signals," 2013 IEEE 9th International Colloquium on Signal Processing and its Applications, Kuala Lumpur, 2013, pp. 199-204, doi: 10.1109/CSPA.2013.6530041.
GPS is another technique to determine the distance between multiple users. The precision of the GPS technique is around the 5-7 mm in this study. Dual frequency GPS is preferable. A dual-frequency GPS does not use one signal but uses two signals to improve the accuracy and reduce disturbance from Radio frequency interference (RFI). An example of such interference could be that from Bluetooth other sources could be that from wireless networks. So, this can be hard to realize when one would like to organize a festival with many attendees. Another problem can a multipath error. This means that the signal bounces of buildings or obstructions leading to making the GPS confused. However, in an open field at a festival this would not be the case.
Cho, Hosik & Ji, Jianxun & Chen, Zili & Park, Hyuncheol & Lee, Wonsuk. (2015). Measuring a Distance between Things with Improved Accuracy. Procedia Computer Science. 52. 10.1016/j.procs.2015.05.119.
Another technique that can be used to measure distance is with a Bluetooth low-energy sensor. Via the signal strength distance can be estimated. The downfall is that the outcomes of such measurement comes with an high error rate, almost 50%. This can be reduced by self-correcting beacons these are placed at an fixed position. This point will act as an reference point for the others to measure from. This reduces the error rate to 10% within a distance of 1.5 meters. Without this extra beacon estimation can be made on how close someone is but no real precise numbers can be given.
Bluetooth (BLE) is about proximity sensing, not measuring distance per se. Measuring distance can be done using signal strength, however that might not be a good indicator. For example there could be an object in the way. To overcome this, a technique called “fingerprinting” could be used. Fingerprinting makes several measurements to several fixed beacons and then chooses the distance to be the closest distance to a beacon. 
Instead of using a single medium to estimate the locations of the targets, positioning technologies can be combined to get the best of both worlds. For example, the SVG system combines WLAN and UWB. WLAN has the advantage of covering large area, while UWB can give highly accurate position estimated in some small required areas. 
In order to produce a solution to our problem we will use the following approach. First of all we’ll do the necessary research required to come up with a design for our product. This will be research into the current state of our problem, the technological aspects of the problem and also the societal implications of a solution. We will formalize the requirements, preferences and constraints of our product and possibly interview stakeholders related to our problem, we will then create a preliminary design from which we will develop a detailed design. From the design we will develop a functional prototype that can be used to help maintain a distance of 1.5m between people, this functional prototype will be tested with a predetermined test plan. All throughout the course we aim to actively maintain the wiki page to document the design process, a presentation will also be made.
In the planning below it can be seen how we aim to divide the process over the weeks.
|Week 1||Form groups, choose a subject, document problems statement, start planning and research.|
|Week 2||Continue research, formalize RPC's of product and possibly get in contact with stakeholders.|
|Week 3||Create preliminary design, decide the necessary hardware and obtain it||Complete preliminary design|
|Week 4||Detailed design, create test plan, breadboard prototype||Complete design|
|Week 5||Work on prototype and document full design on wiki|
|Week 6||Work on wiki and finish the prototype and perform test plan.||Working prototype|
|Week 7||Document results on wiki page, produce presentation video|
|Week 8||Last touches on wiki and video||Complete wiki, complete presentation|
At the end of this project we want to have three deliverables:
- A functional prototype that has been tested
- A wiki page documenting:
- The Research performed
- The design process of our prototype
- The results and concluding remarks
- A video presentation about our prototype.
Position Measurement using Bluetooth, by Sheng Zhou and John K. Pollard
Using bluetooth there is an position error of about 1.2m indoors. Outdoors this is generally less, however in the case of strong multipath interference there can still be errors.
Distance Sensing with Ultrasonic Sensor and Arduino, by N. Anju Latha , B. Rama Murthy, K. Bharat Kumar
An Arduino microcontroller in combination with an ultrasonic sensor can be used to measure distance. Ultrasonic sensor are popular, since they are cheap and have a precision of less than 1 cm in distance measurements of up to 6m. The most common method for measurement is the time of flight measurement, which measures the time between departure and arrival of a signal. A disadvantage of this way of measurement is that the target to be measured should be perpendicular to the plane in which the signal travels. It also the case that the bigger the target, the more accurate the distance will be measured.
The Impact of Covid 19 on Event Management Industry in India, By Mr. Anup M Gajjar & Dr. Bhaveshkumar J Parmar
The event management sector is the fastest growing industry in India. This industry has a lot of damage because of Covid-19, but it is not easily quantifiable how much, since the industry does not come under one ministry or one department, in contrast to e.g. Germany. A lower growth of India’s economy will mean a lower growth of the event industry and a lot of jobs are at stake. The event management sector are now advised to organise events such that information is up-to-date, spaces are well designed to prevent crowd stupidities, communication is clear and event managers are urged to plan for finance and make hand-washing more accessible. It is not possible the identify the loss accurately, but it is certain that because of travel fear and public gathering fear it will take time to recover.
Were Stay-at-Home Orders During Covid-19 Harmful for Business? The Market’s View, by Chen Chen , Sudipto Dasgupta, Thanh D. Huynh, Ying Xia
Stay-at-Home orders were actually good for business. In states without Stay-at-Home orders businesses were worse off. In the U.S., where the research was conducted, it is found that the effect is seen more vividly in counties with a high number of infections and for firms in essential industries. Although the short-term effects of a lockdown seem bad for business, the long-term effects are positive. A reason for this might be that the measures are seen as necessary for stopping the spread of the virus and making labour participation possible.
COVID-19 impact on city and region: what’s next after lockdown? bY Myounggu Kang , Yeol Choi , Jeongseob Kim , Kwan Ok Lee , Sugie Lee , In Kwon Park , Jiyoung Park & Ilwon Seo
Density does not play a big role in the spread of the virus. On the contrary, cities have benefits, such as response times or hospitals being nearby that could be taken advantage of. Essential services should also be close by and there should be enough cheap housing. Furthermore, economics structures like global trade should be restored to keep jobs. Also privacy concerns should not be underestimated and transparency and voluntary consent should be premised. Last but not least we should make sure prejudice and hatred do not develop, which means a great deal of social effort should be made.
Other useful links:
Arduino with an ultrasonic sensor and a buzzer. If an object gets too close to the sensor, the buzzer goes off.
15-25 cm accuracy(?)
|Jeroen||9.5||Meetings (1.5 hrs), brainstorming (1 hr), literature study on state of the art (7 hrs)|
|Pleun||10.5||(Preparing and) meeting (2 hrs), reading other wiki's and brainstorming (1.5 hrs), writing on introduction, objectives, stakeholders, users needs and ethical considerations (5 hrs) and literature research psychological part (2 hrs)|
|Dayeong||11.5||Meetings (1.5 hrs), looking up wikis of previous projects + searching for 8 technology literature (6 hrs), Reading papers and making a summary on State-of-the-art (4 hrs)|
|Rik||10||Meetings (1.5 hrs), researching for subject, reading and summarizing papers regarding the technical aspect of our product and the financial impact of Corona|
|Erik||9||Meetings (1.5 hrs), meeting prep, brainstorming and looking through previous wikis, writing on plan, looking for more relevant papers|
|Jeroen||5.5||Meeting (1.5 hrs), Working on survey (4 hrs)|
|Pleun||7||Meeting (1.5 hrs), mailing and calling event agencies and festival organizers, working out answers from them|
|Dayeong||4||Metting 0.5 hrs + 1 hr + Wristband research 1 hr + contact(WATPod) + modelling(meeting) 0.5 hrs + brainstorming research 1 hrs|
|Rik||5.5||Meeting, researching legal aspect on forced use of face masks, coronabeepers etc., coming up with ideas for making festivals possible again and talking with Van Klink who knows about legal aspects on enforcement of the distance rule, model meeting|
|Erik||9.5||Meetings (1.5hrs) Brainstorm ideas and requirements (2hrs) Creating first sketch of UPPAAL Model of Wristband (5.5hrs) Meeting on model (0.5hrs)|
|Pleun||10||Group meetings, meeting at the Effenaar, relistening Effenaar-talk and writing a summary, brainstorming on new idea, updating wiki-page|
|Dayeong||7||Meetings, Doing research about new ideas, Making a diagram|
|Rik||7.5||Group meetings, meeting at De Effenaar, formulating requirements and coming up with ideas based on the Effenaar talk, work on model|
|Rik||7.5||Meetings, working on cost effectiveness, thinking about and researching concerns and alternatives|
- ↑ [Pavan Hiremath, C S Suhas Kowshik, Maitri Manjunath, and Manjunath Shettara. COVID-19: Impact of lock-down on mental health and tips to overcome]
- ↑ [J.M. Gonzalez_Diax, J.F. Cano, V. Pereira-Sanchez. Psychosocial impact of COVID-19-related quarantine: refelections after the first case of suicide in Colombia. https://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-311X2020000607001&tlng=en]
- ↑ [Rohde, N., D’Ambrosio, C., Tang, K.K. et al. Estimating the Mental Health Effects of Social Isolation. Applied Research Quality Life 11, 853–869 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11482-015-9401-3]
- ↑ [Sarah Moon. Effects of COVID-19 on the Entertainment Industry. https://www.idosr.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/IDOSR-JES-51-8-12-2020.-P2.pdf]
- ↑ [ I.Helsloot, J. Groenendaal, J. Vis, 2020. Wat weten we nu eigenlijk precies van het coronavirus en wat betekent dit voor evenementen? https://crisislab.nl/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/Wat-is-er-bekend-over-corona-def-24-8-2020.pdf?fbclid=IwAR1SU-AAqsZB1uc1iaGLnhSi_fgNvEpbkuInxO3aZfgTXRxQmVEgTSG94mI]
- ↑ [Retrieved from https://www.greatmats.com/how-big-of-a-dance-floor-do-i-need.php]
- ↑ [Hossain, Iqbal & Minhas Talat (2012). Distance Measurement Using Ultra Wideband.]
- ↑ [ Festival Ownership. Differences between Public, Nonprofit and Private Festivals in Sweden, TOMMY D. ANDERSSON & DONALD GETZ, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/15022250903217035?needAccess=true ]
- ↑ [ How Music Festivals Became a Massive Business in the 50 Years Since Woodstock, BY MAHITA GAJANAN, https://time.com/5651255/business-of-music-festivals/ ]
- ↑ [The cost of staging a music festival: 'We spent £30,000 on the waste', Eamonn Forde, https://www.theguardian.com/music/2015/jul/09/cost-of-staging-music-festival ]
- ↑ [ FESTIVAL OVERZICHT 2018, EM Cultuur, https://www.em-cultuur.nl/festival-overzicht-2018/ ]
- ↑ [ Aantal festivals in Nederland groeit hard, muziekfestivals meest in trek, by Consultancy.nl, https://www.consultancy.nl/nieuws/14191/aantal-festivals-in-nederland-groeit-hard-muziekfestivals-meest-in-trek ]
- ↑ [ BEGROTING: WOO HAH!, Ruud Lemmen, http://www.brabantc.nl/site/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/bijlage-1-WOOHAH_BEGROTING.pdf ]
- ↑ [Van Natta, M., Chen, P., Herbek, S., Jain, R., Kastelic, N., Katz, E., Struble, M., Vanam, V., & Vattikonda, N. (2020). The rise and regulation of thermal facial recognition technology during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of law and the biosciences, 7(1), lsaa038. https://doi.org/10.1093/jlb/lsaa038]
- ↑ [Ting, D.S.W., Carin, L., Dzau, V. et al. Digital technology and COVID-19. Nat Med 26, 459–461 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0824-5]
- ↑ [Nguyen, C. T., Saputra, Y. M., Van Huynh, N., Nguyen, N. T., Khoa, T. V., Tuan, B. M., ... & Chatzinotas, S. (2020). Enabling and Emerging Technologies for Social Distancing: A Comprehensive Survey. arXiv preprint arXiv:2005.02816.]
- ↑ [Punn, Narinder & Sonbhadra, Sanjay & Agarwal, Sonali. (2020). Monitoring COVID-19 social distancing with person detection and tracking via fine-tuned YOLO v3 and Deepsort techniques.]
- ↑ [Colmer, Morgan. (2019). UWB Vs BLE Whitepaper.]
- ↑ [Alarifi, A., Al-Salman, A., Alsaleh, M., Alnafessah, A., Al-Hadhrami, S., Al-Ammar, M. A., & Al-Khalifa, H. S. (2016). Ultra Wideband Indoor Positioning Technologies: Analysis and Recent Advances. Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 16(5), 707. https://doi.org/10.3390/s16050707]
- ↑ [D. Dardari, R. D'Errico, C. Roblin, A. Sibille and M. Z. Win, "Ultrawide Bandwidth RFID: The Next Generation?," in Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 98, no. 9, pp. 1570-1582, Sept. 2010, doi: 10.1109/JPROC.2010.2053015.]
- ↑ [What’s The Difference Between Measuring Location By UWB, Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth? By Ciaran Connell, https://www.electronicdesign.com/technologies/communications/article/21800581/whats-the-difference-between-measuring-location-by-uwb-wifi-and-bluetooth ]
- ↑ [T. M. Au, K. F. Tong and K. M. Luk, "Analysis of offset dual-patch microstrip antenna," in IEE Proceedings - Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, vol. 141, no. 6, pp. 523-526, Dec. 1994, doi: 10.1049/ip-map:19941545.]
- ↑ [What’s The Difference Between Measuring Location By UWB, Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth? By Ciaran Connell, https://www.electronicdesign.com/technologies/communications/article/21800581/whats-the-difference-between-measuring-location-by-uwb-wifi-and-bluetooth ]
- ↑ [A Survey of Indoor Positioning Systems for Wireless Personal Networks Yanying Gu, Anthony Lo, Senior Member, IEEE, and Ignas Niemegeers]