PRE2019 1 Group3
Artificial intelligence in Education
|Ruben Haakman||Electrical Engineering||0993994|
|Tom Verberk||Software Science||1016472|
|Peter Visser||Applied Physics||0877628|
Every week we will have 2 meetings, in between the meetings we will work on individual tasks, results of the individual tasks will be examined in the meetings, the tasks dicussed are the time when the tasks has to be done. Once a week a meeting with the tutor(s) is arranged to discuss progress and teamwork. In week 8 we will present our prototype to the class, and afterwards we will finalize the wiki.
|Week||Monday (morning)||Thursday (afternoon)|
|1||ALL : choose topic||ALL : |
make the planning
define structure of the report
|2||Ruben : introduction/problem statement |
All : wiki page
All : state of the art
Peter : users/stakeholders
Tom: Approach, milestones and deliverables, Who’s doing what
Note: The current picture of the planning may not be up to date. The current version can be viewed here: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1Mrgz4kAK8DM9imor_zepvkM9XTyXgOXlZZbME7DrzHo/edit#gid=0.
There has been a big increase of technology in education; smart boards, laptops, tablets and online learning systems are now commonly used in classrooms. Artificial intelligence (AI) is however still new and little used. AI can generate exercises based on individual student’s particular needs to give each student personalized questions. This can help students learn faster and keep them motivated. It also reduces the workload for teachers.
Currently a teacher makes a set of exercises which is the same for all students. In this way the level of the student is not taken into account resulting in questions which are too simple or too difficult. Using AI it is possible to give a student a personal learning program and give exercises that match the level of the student.
State of the art
Title: Math Aversion (State of the Art)
Relevance: incorporate conceptual thinking and illustrations to make students understand mathematical ideas
Title: The Math Wars
Relevance: The article provides an overview of the didactic discussion on math in the past century, as well as the latest controversy, the math war (maybe part of a larger culture war?). It boils down to a fervent discussion between ‘traditionalists’ and ‘modernists’, and their attempts to influence governmental educational policies on math (such as ‘the Standards’ and ‘the Framework’). The text is focussed on the US, but this is likely a trend in the West in general. It is useful to have some knowledge about these philosophical-didactic discussions, although in our limited time we should focus on how to implement the suggested methods of the two groups, not so much on the arguments.
Title: Mathematics is about the world - R.E. Knapp
Relevance: A book about the role of mathematics in our lives, and therefore useful for thinking about how to teach the subject. The book claims that mathematics is abstract, but nevertheless is about the world around us, which we try to understand. That discovering quantitative relationships suits our needs for indirect measurement(s), such as the ‘tool’ of establishing geometric relationships. Trying to concretize the notion - that math is a powerful tool for humans - in our program will help to motivate students to engage with the topic, and help them understand new ‘tools’.
Title: Preparation, practice, and performance: An empirical examination of the impact of Standards-based Instruction on secondary students’ math and science achievement
Relevance: One set of studies on the impact of ‘SBI’ (standards-based instruction) methods, such as: student self-assessment, inquiry-based activities, group-based projects, hands-on experiences, use of computer technologies, and the use of calculators. ‘Non-SBI practices’: teacher lecture, individual student drill and practice worksheets, and computer drill and practice programmes, etc.
overview of (SBI) student-centred methods: - using manipulatives or hands-on materials, such as styrofoam balls and toothpicks for building molecular models, dominoes, base ten blocks, tangrams, spinners, rulers, fraction bars, algebra tiles, coins, and geometric solids. - incorporating inquiry, discovery, and problem-solving approaches, such as making binoculars out of recycled materials, using scenarios from nature and everyday life events for groups of students to research and investigate using math and science concepts - applying math and science concepts to real-world contexts, such as banking, energy concerns, environmental issues, and timelines; - connecting mathematics and science preparation skills to specific careers and occupations - using calculators and technologies for capturing and analysing original data from original math and science experiments - communicating math and science concepts, through journal writing, small-group discussions, and laboratory/technical reporting of experiments and results.
Results: - SBI practices that were found to be significant contributors to students’ math achievement include the use of manipulatives, self-assessment, co-operative group projects, and computer technology. - SBI practices that were found to be significant contributors to students’ science achievement include the use of inquiry, self-assessment, co-operative group projects, and computer technology. - Virtually none of the observed non-SBI practices was found to be a significant contributor to student math or science achievement by gender or ethnic groupings.
Useful, because looking at effective methods is one way to know which side is right in the math war, or at least what methods we can use in our program. Our program might in a (superficial?) way fit into SBI, although that will ultimately depend on the type of exercises and methods we will include.
Title: Didactic material confronted with the concept of mathematical literacy
Relevance: this essay is critical of the ‘highly technocratic’ vision ‘from the top’ that aims to let experts device didactic materials to be used by teachers and students, whilst ignoring: - why is math taught and what is the role of didactic material?, - how and why do students actually use such materials?, - In which ways do didactic materials shape the teachers’ activities? - What does it mean that didactic material is never adopted but always adapted?
Therefore the author claims it is more useful to focus on ‘valuable mathematical activities’ instead of ‘innovative didactic materials’.
Furthermore, the author claims that “mathematical literacy” should be the leitmotiv for the teaching and learning of mathematics (up to secondary school). Mathematical literacy conceives “the relationship between mathematics, the surrounding culture, and the curriculum”. He mentions how this should influence didactic materials, and what these materials should look like. He critiques the ‘optimism’ and ‘exclusivity’ approaches of teaching math,and supports the ‘inclusivity’ approach, which presents math as ‘a method to understand the social and economic world we live in. This strategy considers mathematical activity as potentially critical, political, loaded with values, and informative’ and “The cognitive style of daily routine is of high relevance within these mathematical activities, since it is a fundamental aim of the strategy to empower common sense. It is intended to develop the attitude of daily life towards an attitude of critical consciousness.”.
Useful because it really focuses on the users of didactic material (like our program!), an approach we can use to increase the value students (and teachers) find in our program. We should consider/confirm what mathematical literacy is, and whether it is the right standard to determine what is a valuable mathematical activity. The ‘inclusivity’ approach seems very interesting. However, the author seems very interesting in using math to discuss politics, if not to politicize (young) students, this seems a bad idea.
Title: Geometrical analogies in mathematics lessons
Relevance: A summary of possibilities of mathematics lessons regarding the use of analogies in teaching geometry for different age groups. Useful because we might apply this in the exercises to teach users geometry.
Title: Open Learner Models: Research Questions Special Issue of the IJAIED
Relevance: good summary of “learner models” and discussion of relevant aspects , very detailed, but good to use in a brainstorm for concretising the project.
Title: Intelligent Agent-Based e-Learning System for Adaptive Learning
Relevance: Adaptive learning approach: support learners to achieve the intended learning outcomes through a personalized way.
The main idea: to personalize the learning content in a way that can cope with individual differences in aptitude. NOT: personalizing the presentation style of the learning materials
model: - Aptitude-Treatment Interaction theory (ATI): there is a strong bond between the effectiveness of an instructional strategy (i.e. treatment) and the aptitude level of students -- aptitude: the capability to learn in a specific area either because of having talent or having prior knowledge in this area - Biggs’ Constructive Alignment Model: (use to operationalize ATI): an effective curriculum depends on adequately describing the educational goals desired. Biggs views curriculum as a teaching system, ultimate goal of system is to guide students towards the desired educational goals. He advocates the alignment of individual components in the system like teaching and learning activities (TLAs) and assessment tasks (ATs). It is a hierarchical framework. -- inherits the central idea of constructivism that education is a way to train students to be a self-learner > aim: improving students’ learning outcomes through enhancing their intrinsic motivation
“Students with lower cognitive skill require highly structured instructional environments than students with higher cognitive skills (Snow, 1989).”
Title: Personalized Adaptive Learner Model in E-Learning System Using FCM and Fuzzy Inference System
Relevance: Some new dimensions of adaptivity are discussed here, like automatic and dynamic detection of learning styles. This is more precise and quicker than previous ones. It is a literature-based approach in which a personalized adaptive learner model (PALM) was constructed. This proposed learner model mines learner’s navigational accesses data and finds learner’s behavioural patterns which individualize each learner and provide personalization according to their learning styles in the learning process. Fuzzy cognitive maps and fuzzy inference system, soft computing techniques, were introduced to implement PALM. Result shows that personalized adaptive e-learning system is better and promising than the non-adaptive in terms of benefits to the learners and improvement in overall learning process. Thus, providing adaptivity as per learner’s needs is an important factor for enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of the entire learning process.
Title: Elo-based learner modeling for the adaptive practice of facts
Relevance: - computerized adaptive system for practicing factual knowledge. - widely varying degrees of prior knowledge. - modular approach: 1. an estimation of prior knowledge, 2. an estimation of current knowledge, and 3. the construction of questions. - detailed discussion of learner models for both estimation steps (1 & 2), -- a novel use of the Elo rating system for learner modeling. --- results, and variations in model and effectiveness
very useful, only change the topic
Titel: The Roles of Artificial Intelligence in Education: Current Progress and Future Prospects Link: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1068797.pdf Abstract: This report begins by summarizing current applications of ideas from artificial intelligence (Al) to education. It then uses that summary to project various future applications of Al--and advanced technology in general--to education, as well as highlighting problems that will confront the wide scale implementation of these technologies in the classroom. (relevance): This report gives an example of an already thought of algebra learning AI. However the program doesn’t automatically figure the level of the student. These things are called intelligence tutoring systems (or ITS). Overall very useful article.
Titel: Permutations of Control: Cognitive Considerations for Agent-Based Learning Environments Link: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/251779583_Permutations_of_Control_Cognitive_Considerations_for_Agent-Based_Learning_Environments Abstract: While there has been a significant amount of research on technical issues regarding the development of agent-based learning environments (e.g., see the special issue of Journal of Interactive Learning Research, (1999, v10(3/4)), there is less information regarding cognitive foundations for these environments. The management of control is a prime issue with agent-based computer environments given the relative independence and autonomy of the agent from other system components. This paper presents four dimensions of control that should be considered in designing agent-based learning environments: Instructural purpose, Feedback, relationship, confidence in AI. (relevance): More focussed on the cognitive foundation for Artificial intelligence environment. Interesting for the Usefulness of our ideas.
Titel: Introducing the Enhanced Personal Portal Model in a Synchromodal Learning Environment Link: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/251779583_Permutations_of_Control_Cognitive_Considerations_for_Agent-Based_Learning_Environments Abstract: Study that simulated a digital classroom (by placing camera’s students etcetera) (relevance): Not really relevant for us but interesting to take notice of (perhaps also making a digital environment for our idea)
Titel: Intelligence Unleashed Link: https://www.pearson.com/content/dam/corporate/global/pearson-dot-com/files/innovation/Intelligence-Unleashed-Publication.pdf Abstract: this short paper has two aims in mind. The first was to explain to a non-specialist, interested reader what AIEd (Artificial Intelligence in Education) is: its goals, how it is built, and how it works. The second aim was to set out the argument for what AIEd can offer learning, both now and in the future, with an eye towards improving learning and life outcomes for all. (relevance): This is a company who does research in this topic, it works together with teachers and researchers, therefore this might come as a big
Titel: Web intelligence and artificial intelligence in education. Link: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/220374721_Web_Intelligence_and_Artificial_Intelligence_in_Education Abstract: This paper surveys important aspects of Web Intelligence (WI) in the context of Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) research. WI explores the fundamental roles as well as practical impacts of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and advanced Information Technology (IT) on the next generation of Web-related products, systems, services, and activities. (relevance): More information on Web Intelligence and how it works together with AIED, it focusses on practical inpacts and advanced information technology, especially the first part is interesting for us.
Titel: 10 roles for artificial intelligence in education Link: https://www.teachthought.com/the-future-of-learning/10-roles-for-artificial-intelligence-in-education/ Abstract: This article explores 10 roles for artificial intelligence in education Being: Automate, such as grading Adapt to student needs Point out improvements Ai tutors. Helpfull feedback changes how we find and interact with inforamtion. change role of teachers trial and error less intimidating change how schools find, teach and support students AI may change where students learn, who teaches them, and how they acquire basic skills. (relevance): It can show us some new thing AI helps teachers, which we haven’t thought of yet.
Titel: Exploring the impact of artificial intelligence on teaching and learning in higher education Link: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/321258756_Exploring_the_impact_of_artificial_intelligence_on_teaching_and_learning_in_higher_education Abstract: This paper explores the phenomena of the emergence of the use of artificial intelligence in teaching and learning in higher education. It investigates educational implications of emerging technologies on the way students learn and how institutions teach and evolve. Recent technological advancements and the increasing speed of adopting new technologies in higher education are explored in order to predict the future nature of higher education in a world where artificial intelligence is part of the fabric of our universities. (relevance): It shows the use of Artificial intelligence already in higher education, it might give us some learingpoints while developing our own artificial intelligence.
Titel: The roles of models in Artificial Intelligence and Education research: a prospective view
Link: https://telearn.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00190395/ Abstract: In this paper I speculate on the near future of research in Artificial Intelligence and Education (AIED), on the basis of three uses of models of educational processes: models as scientific tools, models as components of educational artefacts, and models as bases for design of educational artefacts. In terms of the first role, I claim that the recent shift towards studying collaborative learning situations needs to be accompanied by an evolution of the types of theories and models that are used, beyond computational models of individual cognition. In terms of the second role, I propose that in order to integrate computer-based learning systems into schools, we need to 'open up' the curriculum to educational technology, 'open up' educational technologies to actors in educational systems and 'open up' those actors to the technology (i.e. by training them). In terms of the third role, I propose that models can be bases for design of educational technologies by providing design methodologies and system components, or by constraining the range of tools that are available for learners. In conclusion I propose that a defining characteristic of AIED research is that it is, or should be, concerned with all three roles of models, to a greater or lesser extent in each case. (relevance): It can be used to explain a model in which our artificial intelligence solution wolud be beneficial to use.
Titel: Evolution and Revolution in Artificial Intelligence in Education
Link: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40593-016-0110-3 Abstract: The field of Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) has undergone significant developments over the last twenty-five years. As we reflect on our past and shape our future, we ask two main questions: What are our major strengths? And, what new opportunities lay on the horizon? We analyse 47 papers from three years in the history of the Journal of AIED (1994, 2004, and 2014) to identify the foci and typical scenarios that occupy the field of AIED. (relevance): It can give us a quick and ordered view of what research has already been done in the form of AI and where there lie some possibilities for us (written in 2016)
Title: Towards Emotionally Aware AI Smart Classroom: Current Issues and Directions for Engineering and Education
Abstract: Paper about a emotionally-aware AI smart classroom which can take over the role of a teacher.
Title: AI and education: the importance of teacher and student relations
Abstract: Paper about the difference in relationship between student-teacher and student-AI
Title: Designing educational technologies in the age of AI: A learning sciences‐driven approach
Abstract: How to develop an AI algorithm based on studies about how people learn.
Title: Effectiveness of Intelligent Tutoring Systems: A Meta-Analytic Review
Abstract: This review describes a meta-analysis of findings from 50 controlled evaluations of intelligent computer tutoring systems.
Title: Artificial Intelligence as an Effective Classroom Assistant
Abstract: Article about blended learning, wherein the teacher can offload some work to the AI system.
Title: Integrating learning styles and adaptive e-learning system: Current developments, problems and opportunities
Abstract: Review on how learning styles were integrated into adaptive e-learning systems.
Title: Learning Computer Networks Using Intelligent Tutoring System
Abstract: This paper describes an intelligent tutoring system that helps student study computer networks.
Title: Mathematics Intelligent Tutoring System
Abstract: Intelligent tutoring system for teaching mathematics that help students understand the basics of math and that helps a lot of students of all ages to understand the topic.
Title: TECH8 intelligent and adaptive e-learning system: Integration into Technology and Science classrooms in lower secondary schools
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to demonstrate the design and evaluation of an adaptive, intelligent and, most important, an individualised intelligent tutoring system (ITS) based on the cognitive characteristics of the individual learner.
http://cstwiki.wtb.tue.nl/index.php?title=PRE2017_3_Groep8: High school. Made an adaptive gamified online learning system using Moodle.
http://cstwiki.wtb.tue.nl/index.php?title=PRE2016_3_Groep18: Elementary school. Made 4 small educational games for children.
http://cstwiki.wtb.tue.nl/index.php?title=PRE2017_3_Groep14: Elementary school. Made a simple math game for young children.
Users, stakeholders and their requirements
Primary users: high school mathematics students
Our primary users will be high school mathematics students (or people who want to study this on their own). The subject of mathematics is a vital one for developing abstract thinking and applied in many ways in technical fields, and the skill of problem solving can be applied in many ways in life. At the same time mathematics is often considered difficult by students. For these reasons we think the subject of mathematics is where good value can be provided with our web-based AI-enhanced learning tool. Additionally, mathematics (like other hard sciences) allows for easier checking of answers than the type of language-based (short) essay answers that are required for social sciences. Vocabulary would be a suitable topic as well, however we are unaware of a shortage in German or French translators, whereas there is a shortage in engineering and in the skilled trades. Since highschool in the bridge between primary and college, that is where our program could be most valuable. The introductory test to assess the mathematics level can incorporate primary school topics, and we could offer such exercises to the slightly more mature student as well, whereas primary school children are less self-directed.
By estimating the current level of understanding and the learning style (speed, etc.) of the individual student, we can offer a tailored learning experience that will help the student get quick feedback (and hopefully more positive results), which will help with building confidence in tackling (new) mathematics problems and might even make the subject more enjoyable. Using students to beta-test our program will be a useful way to interact with these users, since they might be less able to communicate exactly what it that is lacking in their mathematics course. The proof of the pudding is in the eating, measuring success and especially engagement over time will show how well our program works. Once the students have an actual product to work with they might give valuable feedback on why they kept using it, or why they stopped using it. Of course here we need to take into account that some students might have learning difficulties that need more direct coaching or are just plainly uninterested in improving their lack of mathematical skill. Our program might help some of these kinds of students, but assuming it will be the mathematics panacea is unwise. We aim to get a prototype early b-test with students done at the end of the project.
Primary users: high school mathematics teachers
Other primary users will be high school mathematics teachers. Students can of course start using the web-program on their own, but if high school teachers find it valuable enough to recommend it to students, that could be a good sign. Of course we will have to consider their biases in didactics and their general mindset in terms of improving education (for some it might be lacking). Nevertheless, their impact can be useful, by for instance finding out what in their experience are the main difficulties students have, and trying to adapt for those thing in our program (content-wise, but also in terms of engagement). We will form a focus group of a few of these teachers to make qualitatitve study on the difficulties of teaching mathematics. Their input will be used to determine the direction and attributes of our prototype. Later on we might get them to evaluate it (in combination with a beta-test on students?).
Secundairy users: Headmasters
Headmasters are stakeholders, since they have a say in the way mathematics is taught in their school. Financial cost will be always be in the back of their minds, and as such they will critically assess the performance, robustness and scalability of the program. But, they are clearly concerned about the rates at which students progress through key-courses like mathematics (in the Netherlands it has certain higher requirements than some other courses in terms of passing classes and graduating). If our program can help with that, this is an opportunity. Maybe, our program’s introductory test can be used as the intro-test for new students, and the program can help bridging the gap (the school may decide to used other ways to help these students as well). Depending on the school the headmasters may also have didactical views that are key to the identity of the school that may or may not match with what we decide to use in our program. Given the diversity in education-land, this simply means there will always be some less enthusiastic headmasters with respect to adopting our program. It could be tempting to go with the majority, but we have to independently assess whether the majority is correct, maybe the majority view is related to the problems in teaching mathematics.
Tertiary users / stakeholders
Ministry of Education
At a more distant level the ministry of education has similar concerns as the headmasters in terms of money spend and passing rates, but they also bound to more ideological/didactic points of view that are determined by the parliament and the current minister, tough on the other hand the bureaucracy itself might also have a mainstream point of view that is somewhat different. These views will somewhat affect the chances of our program ultimately getting adopted in individual school, if for instance certain funding is allocated to, or withdrawn from, computer-based mathemathics/learning aids – with certain requirements, etc. However, the ministry does not determine for the school what teaching aids they must use in particular.
(Technical) Universities / STEM departments
Technical universities and STEM departments at others have two stakes, one is a higher level of mathematics ability of incoming students, since it is the basis on which many majors (if not all) depend. This could save money in terms of additional efforts, and can bring in more money (if students progress/graduate quicker). Secondly, the more engaging mathematics program we aim to develop might induce more student to choose to go to a technical university or a STEM major instead of a alpha or gamma major.
Given the lack of workers in the skilled trades and in engineering, technical companies have a clear stake in students being better in (applied) mathematical problems solving. And such skills can in fact be useful in many jobs, so companies in general might benefit, although it might sound less interesting than clean-desk or scrum or feng shui.
Our approach will look the following. We will start with some up front research, we will make some sort about “didactiek” and how to apply this in our webpage we want to create. While doing research about these topics we will start working on our webpage. We are planning to build some sort of web page or program. This artifact will have some sort of artificial intelligence which keeps track of the level of skill of the student and gives exercises matching the skill level of the student. After being done with the research about “didactiek”. We will lay the proposal of our artifact in front of several high school teachers. We want to have their input, as the artifact is build for there purpose. We then apply the given advise in our artifact. Lastly we plan to test our improved application for use, we will go to the same (or other) high school teachers and ask if we can test them in their classes. We then come up with a conclusion and finish the research.
Our milestones will be the finish of our research, the alpha version of our application, then the comments of the teachers, then the beta version of our application. The findings of the test subject and finally the final version.
Our deliverables will be a research about the current AI in education, the findings we got from talking to teachers, the test results found when testing on students and finally our artifact.
Didactics of mathematics
Hierarchy of mathematics modules
In the figure below is a sketch of what the structure of the program can look like. The modules might be related more complexely, this we need to assess. Modules can have sub-modules. The number of exercises is one key aspect in attuning to the individual learner.
Web server and web page
This is up and running, users have a log-in to access their account. (more info to follow)
niveau (algemeen, en verschillende delen?), leer-tempo, ‘geheugen’ (percentage goed over ‘oudere’ stof ?), leerstijl?