PRE2020 4 Group5

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Members Student ID Faculty E-mail
Ive Harzing 1325094 AP
Tim Kolen 1311506 AP
Peter Duel 1236313 ME
Quentin Missinne 1435957 ME
Johan van Tien 1455788 ME


Project Description

Project Objectives




In space exploration, the lines between User, Society and Enterprise are often more vague than in other fields. This is because one entity can be in all three groups at once, with the main example being NASA.

NASA is a User of the satellites and spacecrafts that are in space, using them to conduct research in many different topics.

NASA is also Society, since it is a government driven and funded entity. NASA has its own administrator, but the decision making is also heavily influenced by Congress.

Lastly, NASA has a major role in Enterprise, not to make profit themselves (since they’re funded by the Government), but to fund other companies that build rockets and satellites.

So the Governmental space administrations usually fall in all three categories. Besides that, there are the companies, who usually fall in the groups User and Enterprise, and the scientists, who fall in the groups User and Society.


  • Space agencies
  • Governmental: NASA, ESA, JAXA, Roscosmos
  • Commercial:
  • rockets: ULA, SpaceX, Boeing, Blue Origin
  • satelites: JPL, Lockheed Martin, Orbital ATK, Universities
  • astrophysicists


(To be edited) Satisfying our curiosity further our understanding of

  • planetary biochemistry
  • formation of planets/moons

Long term: Everyone


(to be edited) Enterprise:

  • Space agencies
  • Governmental: NASA, ESA, JAXA, Roscosmos)
  • Commercial: SpaceX, Blue Origin
  • astrophysicists

Project Plan


To approach the project, milestones are created in hopes of setting realistic goals which can be acheived on a weekly basis. These goals will span for the entirety of the project timeline. Note, these will change throughout the project, as the type of deliverable is still not set in concrete. Once this is decided many of the milestones can be removed or ammended. Below the milestones can be found in a chronological order. These will be used later to create a project plan which can be modified throughout the project.

Week 1

  • Project Decision
  • Project Plan
  • Research (25 papers - 5 P.P.):
  • Complete USEr research

Week 2:

  • List of topics for WIKI
  • RPC List
  • Start looking into design solutions
  • Specify Deliverable

week 3:

  • Research
  • Prototype/deliverable development of idea
    • potential deliverable programs/software
    • what would be used to create deliverable/software.
  • Update project plan for prototype/deliverable

Week 4:

  • Additional research (if necissary)
  • Begin developping prototype
  • Addapt WIKI page with new information

Week 5:

  • Run primary test on prototype
  • Fix any issues with prototype and further develop it

Week 6:

  • Complete Prototype
  • Test Prototype deliverable

Week 7:

  • Final testing of deliverable
  • Fill in missing information from WIKI

Week 8:

  • Presentation
  • Finalize WIKI

RPC List


  • Get to Titan, the device must be able to reach Titan.
  • Durability, the materials the device is made of must be able to sustain the environment, meaning it should not erode quickly or react chemically with Titan's atmosphere or surface.
  • Survivable, the device should be able to handle temperatures as low as 90K, and be able to deal with winds of up to 34m/s (122km/h)
  • Longevity, there must be an energy source on the device that enables the device to collect sufficient data.
  • Autonomy, with light having to travel 60 to 90 minutes from Earth to Titan the device must be able to operate (partly) autonomously since it cannot be directly controlled from earth due to the massive 'input lag' caused by the distance between Earth and Titan.
  • Consistent communication, the device should be able to communicate in a consistent format with Earth.
  • Navigation, the device should be able to navigate Titan without getting itself stuck.
  • Ethical treatment, when life is encountered the device should be able to recognize this and act accordingly.


  • Flexible ways of travel, the device should be able to travel across both land and lakes/rivers and should be able to traverse canyons as well.
  • Redundancy, when vital components stop working, it should have redundant backup parts such that it is able to function again afterwards.
  • Simulation, the device should have a proper model to simulate the device's behavior on Earth for verification.
  • Obtaining data, the device should be able to obtain data via camera, infrared, and XXX(?).
  • In case of rover: Geo-locate, the device should be able to identify its location on the surface.
  • In case of Satellite: Orbital-location, the device should be able to identify its current position with reference to its orbit.
  • Use ready data: data obtained from the device should be formatted in a way that it is ready for use. E.g. maps should be directly renderable in GIS.
  • Constant data flow, such that information passes to and from the device continuously.
  • sustainability, the material used should have the potential of being recovered, and if not, should be safe to leave on titan without causing damage to the enviroment, or when in orbit would not create space debris.
  • Universal Program, the code written for the operation of the device (in all cases) should not restrict the availability of potential imput from other software, and should allow a large range of possible contribution.


  • Maximum size, the device must fit into the rocket so it can be transported.
  • Maximum weight, the device cannot weigh more than (to be determined) in order for the rocket to launch properly.
  • Cost/Realizability, the device/mission has to be approved by a governmental Space Agency (probably NASA), to get funding.

Logbook and Structure:

For a thoroughly catalogued timetable of the work contributed by team members, the Logbook Group 5 is used.

The hours mentioned within this logbook correspond to the Project Plan Adaptable Structure, where-in a continuously modified to-do list is given, as well as the priority of each task, and how far developped these tasks are.



State of the Art:


Test section

Test 1<ref name="test"> Test reference. </ref> Test 2<ref name="test"></ref>. Test 3<ref name="what"> Another test.</ref>. Yields:

Test 1[1] Test 2[1]. Test 3[2].


  1. 1.0 1.1 Test reference.
  2. Another test.

Uncited sources

  • Nature (magazine) on Lakes On Titan - link
  • Nature (journal) on Lakes On Titan - link
  • On Terrain features on a part of Titan - link
  • On extremophiles in astrobilogy - link
  • On finding evidence of fossilized bacteria (on earth) - link
  • Image based species identification - link
  • On rover-to-orbiter communication - link
  • DragonFly mission concept - link
  • Space exploration for life - link
  • The (progress of) development of autonomy technologies required to explore Titan - link
  • A page containing all info published by NASA about the Cassini mission - link
  • A page containing loads of information about Titan itself published by NASA - link
  • Geological map of Titan published by NASA - link
  • Impervious surface mapping - link
  • Achievements in space robotics - link
  • Dragonfly mission page - link
  • Gravity assisted space travel - link
  • The Oberth effect - link
  • NASA Scientists Discover ‘Weird’ Molecule in Titan’s Atmosphere - link
  • Pictures of Saturn and Titan - link
  • Modular Software for an Autonomous Space Rover - link
  • Real time map building - link
  • ESA Cassini-Huygens page - link
  • DragonFly concept paper - link
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