PRE2020 3 Group 5 Summaries

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Contents

Week 1 Summaries

Sven

Paper [1]
Summary:

Drones do not need any additional infrastructure to quickly register and monitor a designated area or object. UAV’s are unmanned aerial vehicles, mainly being used by police and army. Drone is composed of two major systems: movement system and control system. Movement system consists of the frame (which should be as light as possible). The frame consists of arms with propellers, and usually more arms lead to a more stable flight. The next major part of drone are the engine and the propellors, since they turn torc into lift. The power of a drone depends how long a drone can stay in the air and this is often a major drawback for a drone. Batteries are used as a power source. Batteries can be divided into disposable batteries and accumulators, which can be charged multiple times. In these batteries chemical reactions occur, which lead to electrical energy. The article now goes further into chemical reactions and some requirements and effects of these reactions The control system of a drone determines how the drone is able to move in the air. The control is often determined by algorithms and sensors. There is a large difference between civil drones and military drones. Main difference: Military drones way bigger and more powerful. The article now proceeds with some possible usages for drones, some of these are important for us: Fire brigade: • Vision support in actions of fighting forest fires, of flood, road rail and air disasters. • Thermal imaging the direction of fire sources • Tracking and monitoring the sources of pollution • Thermal detection of fire sources • General support of the movable operation position/command Police: • Communication disaster service • Patrolling a designated area • Traffic congestion documentation and traffic jams • Operating and monitoring mass events • A support for pursuit actions, searching and other police actions • Obtaining the evidence Main risks of drones 1. They may fall out of the air once a while 2. Drones are unmanned, which makes them relatively easy to steal. 3. Drones might also be a threat the privacy of people.


Paper [2]
Summary:

This article first goes into dept on all kinds of drones, the writers also try to categorize all these different drones. The article than proceeds to look at some applications for all of these drones. Only some are interesting for our chosen subject. For example the search and rescue drones (medical drones?). The main advantage of these drones is their quick response time, helicopters always need some additional time to prepare for the flight. The article also gives 4 references to concepts of these rescue drones. The article also gives a example and reference to a possible way of using drones to help the police, where the Tokyo’s police is using drones to take down other suspicious drones. Challenges in drone design. Weight and size play an important role, a extremely small scale (insects size) is extremely difficult due to low Reynolds number. Fixed wing drones are easier to produce, however these drones are not able to slow down in the air and flying indoors is extremely hard for these drones. These drones also require less power than a helicopter with the same weight. Tilt-wing and tilt-rotor design drones can fly like an airplane but they can also perform vertical flights. According to the writer will these drones have a bright future in civilian and military use. Normal ways of controlling a drones • Radio control: normal range is about 5km • Navigation by video base: Camera images are send to control person to navigate further • Autopilot: The flight plan should be uploaded before the flight.


Paper [3]
Summary:

Article focusses on how commercial drones (drones owned by companies and individuals) will change society. Drones have already started to change methods of filmmaking. Openpilot: A project that aims to create universal autopilot software that an be used to fly civilian drones for humanitarian, academic, and hobbyist applications. Drone manufacturers have invited the open source community to their design process. Drones are commercially being used to survey crops, counting wild life, land surveying, surveying forest fires, inspecting oil pipelines and power lines. Amanzon Prime Air, DHL and Google are pioneers in exploring new types of delivery mechanism. The use of drones in civilian airspace has triggered concerns about basic human rights, like safety and security. Drones always carry the danger of making an accidental crash. When does a drone interfere with someone’s privacy? In a public space a person does not have complete privacy, so should a drone be allowed to film in public spaces? To determine whether a drone crosses the privacy guidelines, the complete flightpath has to be evaluated, also all data gathered by all sensors has to be checked and how this data is being used. Since drones are a relatively new technology and with a lot of different kinds of ‘drones’, it is really hard to create clear guidelines for all these types of aircrafts.


Paper [4]
Summary:

It is expected that drones will take a major role in ‘smart cities’ of the future. However drones do bring several societal and technical challenges that need to be addressed. Drones can be used to help society, however drones can also turn into a dangerous weapon working against society. The FAA is the federal aviation administration of the US, it is their job to set clear guidelines on rules for drone usage. Drones controlled by WIFI are vulnerable to security breaches. SkyJack can detect all wireless networks and can deactivate clients connected o a drone. This way SkyJack is able to take control over multiple drones at once. A de-authentication attack is another way of blocking the user from controlling their drone. GPS spoofing: attackers send falls GPS information to drones to take control of the drone. Drones can also be turned into a danger for society. These drones can be taken down in different ways. By using another drone with a net attached to it for example. Or by using a drone that is equipped with technology to take control by WIFI networks over the other drone. Scotland police has also been training eagles to take down drones, this worked great since it is a cost effective solution.


Paper [5]
Summary:

Common drone applications in medicine include the provision disaster assessments when other means of access are severely restricted. Drones could help elderly by providing mobility assistance. Further in the future telemedicine technology might be provided by drones in remote areas. These drones may help with ensuring the delivery of life-saving treatment. Since drones are a relatively new technology, many problems occur around the regulations around drones. Medical centres that are largely underground might also profit from drones to help from ground to ground transportation, since pneumatic transport systems can be costly. Studies have also shown that drones can be used to deliver defibrillator (AED’s). The use of drones could easily decrease response times and survival rates.

Lucas

Paper [6]
Summary:

Early defibrillation is the most important intervention affecting survival from sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). To improve public access to early defibrillation, the Italian research project Piacenza Progetto Vita (PPV) formed the first system of out-of-hospital early defibrillation by first-responder volunteers.

Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) claims an estimated 350 000 lives per year in the United States, representing a major public health problem. The vast majority of SCA is caused by ventricular fibrillation (VF) (85%), in which early defibrillation is the most important intervention affecting survival. After 10 minutes, very few resuscitation attempts are successful (0% to 2%). The major determinants of survival after witnessed out-of-hospital SCA include bystander initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and the rapidity with which defibrillation is accomplished. Unfortunately, most victims do not have immediate access to prompt, effective treatment, and too much time elapses before the defibrillator arrives, if it arrives at all.

The approach focusses almost exclusively on improving defibrillation response times with the use of lay volunteers. The role of traditional CPR in SCA survival has been recently disputed, given both the poor CPR skill performance and retention by people without (much/any) experience with providing medical help. These volunteers all had followed a 4 hour session with theoretical and practical lessons. AEDs were placed at several fixed locations and at a few moving vehicles (e.g. police) and the volunteers were notified whenever an accident occurred in their region.

The outcome of the research is positive and shows much future potential as the use of AEDs by nonmedical volunteers enabled early defibrillation and tripled the survival rate for out-of-hospital SCA.


Paper [7]
Summary:

In this study, we report a case series of fatal penetrating head injuries caused by tear gas canisters (TGCs). Here, a retrospective chart review was conducted of all the patients who were admitted to the Neurosurgery Teaching Hospital in Baghdad, Iraq, since the start of the antigovernment protests (October 2019). All patients who suffered penetrating head trauma caused by TGCs were included in the study.

The tear gas can be delivered by a variety of means, including canisters, grenades, munitions, among others. Importantly, the delivery method plays a pivotal role in its terminal impact. Although intended as nonlethal weapons, there have been numerous incidents where the use and misuse of these agents have resulted in serious injuries and even death

In this study, out of 41 patients with TGC-related head injuries, 10 cases of penetrating head trauma caused by these TGCs were found. All victims were men, with a mean age of 16 years (range, 14–19 years). CT scans revealed an extensive pattern of brain damage. Some also have reported that the long-term health effects of tear gases include posttraumatic stress disorder, major depressive disorder, and chronic respiratory disease.

The conclusion from this study is that TGCs have the potential to cause lethal penetrating head injuries, calling for a reevaluation of their safety and methods of use in terms of human health. strict international guidelines are required before the use of these weapons can be condoned again.


Paper [8]
Summary:

Report is dedicated to thermophysical and chemical explanation of the ways of increasing the fireextinguishing process of solid combustible materials. As a result of research such indicators are obtained as speed of extinguishing, with help of fast-hardening foam. Fireextinguishing mechanisms of fast-hardening foam are here considered and evidences of their positive features are given.

To extinguish a fire, it is important to (1 ) cool the heated layer of burning SCM (solid combustible materials), (2) protect burning surface from external heating influence of the fire and (3) to the insulate the burning layer from oxygen access. The FHF extinguishes a fire about 7 times faster than the water at a delivery intensity of 12.7 L/min (0.21 L/s). This means that about 1L of FHF is needed to extinguish one square meter of burning layer (it is not very clearly stated in the paper whether this concerns 1 square meter or the whole test object).

The conclusion of the paper is that FHF is absolutely a new mean in the fire-fighting sphere which can lead to revolution in the methods, approaches and tactics of fire extinguishing and fire and explosion prevention. Thanks to its unique features this foam provides extremely high firefighting efficiency as compared to all existing means. Moreover it is impossible to re-ignite object after extinguishing even if impacted on that with flame during more than 30 min. Besides foam is even not destroyed. This advantage gives undeniable opportunities to fire-fighters especially when they have to not only extinguish fire but also have to save people lives.


Paper [9]
Summary:

This article discusses the development of drone technology and evaluates the Fourth Amendment privacy issues in the US, arising out of domestic drone use (specifically within context of surveillance and technology development). Finally, it considers potential solutions to these privacy concerns.

A few examples of these concerns are that drones provide long-term GPS capabilities that can be performed without actually coming in contact with an individual’s person or property, they are inexpensive, come equipped with real-time recording and various types of cameras. ‘’As many Americans are unaware of changing drone technology use and applications in the United States, they can hardly have formulated sufficient protections to potential privacy invasions that could result from drone use.’’ Examples of proposed regulations in the US are that federal law enforcement must obtain a warrant before using a drone for surveillance purposes, and others are designed to limit and control specific agency uses.

The conclusion is that like many other technologies developed in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, drones have many positives and many negatives associated with their use. Therefore, proactive steps should be taken by both the Legislature and the Judiciary to ensure individual privacy rights are not eroded with the incorporation of this new technology into our daily lives. The best way to ensure that our reasonable expectation of privacy is maintained is for Congress to enact a baseline consumer protection law that manages both governmental and private party use of drones in national airspace. Following the development of a baseline federal law, states could further protect individual rights by adding state specific legislation to the baseline protection.


Paper [10]
Summary:

One of the main issues about drones is their power management. However, these devices are powered by a high energy density lithium battery, but a flight time range could be about 20–40 min. Increasing the battery energy storage capacity to achieve more flight time is not usually a good idea due to the additional weight in drones. In order to solve this issue, an Intelligent Battery Management System (IBMS) is proposed to predict the maximum available energy of the battery pack to make the best decision for finding the closest charging station depending on different weather conditions. In this study, lithium-ion battery with lithium titanite oxide (LTO) anode, as a fast charging and fast discharging battery, is used as the drone power supply.

Based on the flight conditions including maximum available energy, distance to destination and path planning algorithm defined in the IBMS, the most optimal ground node is selected as the target for drone to be recharged. The results showed that this specific drone (max. speed of 50 km/h) had to charge after being 5940 meters away from the origin, as it would cross the minimal energy threshold at that point. It is not stated how long it had to charge.

The results showed the effectiveness of the proposed intelligent battery management system in finding the best charging station for the drone based on its maximum available energy and destination It is not really clear what type of drone is used in this research, but it probably concerns a basic, domestic drone.


Bram

Paper [11]
Summary:
Public acceptance of drones: Knowledge, attitudes, and practice
Introduction
82% of the media printed articles are about military strikes.
History
In 1862, a patent for a flying machine that could hold bombs was registered in Massachusetts. This became the defining moment in history for UAV’s. The breakthrough in technology for modern weaponized drones were used in the 1940’s.
Applications of drones
At this stage, public opinion is labile and open to arguments as people attempt to understand the questions and trade-offs involved. In general terms, examining these arguments by statistical methods to decrease the uncertainty is the main objective of this research study. There are a lot of current and future developments for drones. Public knowledge of drones
A survey with 5 question was taken among a general public and the results mainly showed that the general public was unaware of the technological limitations of drones and the history of drones.
Public perception of drones
The public finds the usage of drones acceptable for the benefit for others, but not for only the joy of the pilot. There needs to be careful monitoring and regulations. Transportation of cargo was accepted more than the transport of people. The public perception of drones depended on where they were used and for what purposes. Objectives of the study
The public is at a consciousness raising stage with respect to the drones, still gathering information and forming impressions, labile and open to arguments attempting to understand the questions and trade-offs involved.
Methodology
A survey was used to examine the knowledge and perspective of the people towards drones. Participants were asked the perception of drones for commercial, public safety, hobby, and scientific research uses.
Knowledge
The general public learned drones mainly from movies and mainstream news media, whereas stakeholders learned mainly from trade literature and personal experience. The stakeholders have more knowledge about drones than the general public has.
Attitudes
Privacy is the main concern of people and there are more concerns about drones with camera’s than without. The support for drone usages is higher for public safety and scientific than for commercial and hobby.
Discussion and implementations
The drone technology is emerging rapidly and its applications are advancing beyond the public knowledge. Public know significantly less than what they think they know about drones. Lack of informative programs on mainstream media caused a nation-wide atmosphere, where drones are constantly criticized for their risks. It is not the technology that is risky; it is how people use them.
In general, the probability and impact of something going wrong are slim. A promising result of this study is that public supports the use of drones for public safety and scientific research applications.


Paper [12]
Summary:
Forest Fire-Fighting Monitoring System Based on UAV team and Remote Sensing
UAVs with remote sensing techniques can provide rapid, mobile, and low-cost powerful solutions for various forest fire tasks. Many issues related to UAV-based forest fire monitoring systems, including their architecture, suitable platforms, sensors, remote sensing and image processing algorithms, still remain insufficiently investigated today, so this needs further research.
The multi-UAV-based tactical forest fire monitoring system should perform the following functions: fire detection, fire monitoring, fire diagnosis and fire prognosis. System operation can be generally broken down into three successive stages: fire search, fire confirmation and fire observation. The main types of missions it will perform at each stage is: patrol mission, confirmation mission and monitoring mission.
The system includes the following components: a multitude of UAVs, an infrastructure for the UAV ground support and equipment for the UAVs control, specific algorithms/techniques for remote sensing and image/signal processing, a dedicated ground command center that includes communication/computation equipment, geographic information system (GIS), and decision support system and specific algorithms solving the fire detection, tracking, diagnosis, and prediction tasks.
The requirements on the used UAVs; all-weather suitability, self-localization, navigational autonomy, cooperation, payload and availability. For cost efficient reasons a fixed wing is used for patrolling. For confirmation missions, hovering capabilities are useful, therefor quadcopter or hybrid drone. For monitoring missions, stability is the prime requirement and therefor a octocopter would be most beneficial.
To estimate the fire spreading, sensor are placed on the drone to make it more accurate. The benefit of an infrared camera is that it won’t be affected by smoke. Combined with a RBG camera and GPS the position of the fire can determined. This is implemented into different colour shade blocks, like red for fire and green for the forest. This had an accuracy of 92% of correct forest fire detection. The combination of the multi-UAV-based automatic monitoring system and remote sensing techniques with an approximate model of forest fire spreading can provide the required credibility and efficiency of the fire prediction and response.


Paper [13]
Summary:
Managing the drone revolution: A systematic literature review into the current use of airborne drones and future strategic directions for their effective control
Introduction
Delivering medical supplies in remote African areas gives a potential preview of their role in urban parcel/package delivery. The commercial use of drones have issues like privacy and security. With the usage of literature, to provide drone use with a framework that allows this evolving industry to continue growing at a rapid pace and also to innovatively disturb traditional business models in an economically ordered and safe manner.
Methodology
This paper focused more on management literature instead of legal/ethical, engineering and computer science fields. With a search strategy to yield the most important sources for the subject, 133 articles remained useful and analysed.
Results
Bibliographic results
The sources are from 408 unique auteurs, with 21 auteurs which have written more than 1 article, they are from 2015-2019, with the most in the last years. The USA (58 publications) is the most contributing country, with China (25) second and Australia (22) third and South Korea (21) fourth. Keywords like ‘privacy’ and ‘regulations’ are far less mentioned than ‘drone delivery’.
Present and emerging issues in civilian drone usage results
Security management, invasion of sensitive airspace, safety, privacy and other like noise remain critical issues. Consumers may respond positively to drones through changing perceptions of risk, functional benefits and relational attributes. Operators use four main types of technology development strategies when using drones: focus (adding drones to current operations), depth (expanding current operations more fully), breadth (expanding operations across new offerings) and holistic (developing wholly new operations or approaches).
Primary use cases
Monitoring, inspection and data collection with the usage of drones is cheaper and safer than other options. Photography/image collection will acquire visual data to support decision making. Drones are also used for recreation and this could help with the acceptance of drone technology. Logistics is perhaps the most interesting. Currently, drones are used to manage inventories inside warehouses. The list of potential uses is extensive, and the development of drones in this way is likely to be revolutionary however initial findings are suggesting that they may only be feasible in congested urban areas.
Increased and increasing use will be more invasive of airspace than current usage, which if not managed appropriately, and if not managed for community standards (within the license to operate), may lead to rejection of the technology and the benefits that they are purported to bring.
Managing the drone revolution – current regulatory approaches
Some airports are working to manage drones in their airspace, but the methods are reactive or defensive instead of proactive and preventative methods. Their need to laws and regulations to manage drone impacts about the drone itself, who flies the drone, how they fly it, where they fly it and other factors. These rules are also there to support entrepreneurship, innovation and economic growth.
Managing the drone revolution – where to from here?
More thinking about drone macro-management and their broader interaction with the environment needs progression, particularly how to manage drones and their collective impact on the remainder of society so that this impact is positive. There are a lot of systems that needs to be implemented before everything can work sufficiently. Drones may replace hydrocarbon fuel consumption with electric fuel consumption. They may also remove trucks from roads, particularly urban delivery ones. Medical deliveries will need higher prioritization on the network to ensure their rapid delivery from the donors to the operating theatres where they are needed.
Security, privacy and acceptance concerns are not as dominant as they have been in previous periods. Impact, potential risk and safety/cost trade-off are important subjects and need more investigation.


Paper [14]
Summary:
Surgical and Medical Applications of Drones: A Comprehensive Review
The next steps include aggressive research initiatives in the areas of safety, industry expansion, increased public awareness, and participation.
Drones are grouped into 7 broad categories: agriculture (339), environment and conservation (436), law enforcement and traffic (50), education (28), construction and industry (130), commercial shipping (87) and medicine (159). The medical applications were further indexed into 3 major categories: public health/disaster relief (116) , telemedicine (8) and medical transport (78).
Public Health and Medical Surveillance
Drones are used for surveillance of disaster sites, areas with biological and chemical hazards, and tracking disease spread. It has been shown that drones can gather information about the number of patients in need of care and triage in high-risk environments. The ability of drones to acquire real-time, high-resolution temporal and spatial information at low cost makes them viable for epidemiology research.
Telemedicine
It is a drone platform that concentrated on providing communications for performing pre- and postoperative evaluations of patients and telementoring of certain surgical procedures in remote areas.
Drones in Medical Transport Systems
Drones could deliver viable laboratory samples in ∼25% of the time it took to deliver the samples by land. The sample integrity from stationary blood samples is similar with drone-transport.
Drones can deliver automated external defibrillators for those individuals who are in cardiac arrest and for a 1.2-square-mile-radius <2 minutes. Unfortunately, current systems are still riddled with problems, such as high collision rates, airspace regulations, and injury control.
Conclusion
Despite the accelerating maturation of applications in media, agriculture, infrastructure inspection, and other fields, the evolution of medical applications of drone technology has been slower to develop.
There has been intense focus by private and public and federal and state sectors aimed at nurturing industry progression by supporting initiatives to advance safety and industry expansion and increase public awareness and participation.


Paper [15]
Summary:
Do drones have a realistic place in a pandemic fight for delivering medical supplies in healthcare systems problems?
Introduction
The advantages of a drone are its speed and these low costs. The UAV’s would be there for delivery of medical drugs, food, blood, control, etc.
Different aspects of UAV’s
Environmental aspect
Drones could reduce global warming, because the freight transport sector causes for a fifth of the global greenhouse gas emissions. Weather could be a problem for the drones.
Social aspect
According to sceptics, most believe that autonomous drones will harm the labor market, because they will replace the jobs humans were doing. Al lot of drones are equipped with camera’s. They could take picture’s or make video’s and that could be an invasion of their privacy.
Technical aspect
The payload and limited autonomy are not beneficial for the usage of drones instead of vans or cars. Weather conditions and civil aviation could be a significant problem.
Potential UAV applications in health
The usage of UAV’s in the health sector with the SARS-COV-2 pandemic will most likely be blood transfer with 35%, then drug supplies with 28%, vaccination program with 20% and others with 17%.
Drone consumer delivery
Food transportation replaced 1 hour with 10 minutes of transport time. We see drones as part of a larger smart logistics initiative that brings people, places, and goods closer, faster, and easier.
Disinfecting common areas with UAV
UAV’s could disinfect public places with a 10-liter load capacity and is enough for nearly a half of a hectare. UAV’s are 50 times more effective than humans.
Detecting ill with pandemic UAV’s
Thermal camera UAV’s scan people’s body temperature with a high precision infrared for the safety of the crowd.
Surveillance epidemiology
The use of drones carrying banners with Quick Response (QR) codes or loudspeakers to encourage people to return home.
Drones to real-time monitoring and information
The focus is mostly on the following features:
1) Identify and monitor displaced populations, their movements, and temporary settlements.
2) Carry out large-scale assessments of an affected region or assess remote and hard to reach areas.
3) Track logistics convoys in real-time.
China is using drones which look a lot like pigeons and it is hard to distinguish them from real birds. France is using drones to locate groups of people and broadcast a message over the loudspeakers.
Discussion
UAV’s are limited due to the aviation sector regulations and constraints with the issuance of permits. There is no evidence that the police has used UAV’s for surveillance in the public or private sectors.
About safety and security, drones have been spotted over or near airports, disrupting civil aviation and/or threatening flight safety; crashed to the ground; flew over critical infrastructure, embassies, or tourist attractions; have injured people.
The recommendations that can be given are:
1) Develop a continental regulatory framework for the use of UAVs worldwide and harmonize the policies of different countries and regions (health communities)
2) Foster collaborations, partnerships, networks and knowledge exchanges, triangular, and regional to facilitate the generalization and use of drone technology.
UAV’s could provide fast response when every second counts.
The process of development of UAV’s should be transparent, because of the persistent military overtone.
Conclusion
The most promising uses of drones in humanitarian action are: (A) Mapping; (B) the delivery of essential products to remote or difficult to access places; (C) support to assess the damage; (D) improving situational awareness; (E) the healthcare sector in the presence of a pandemic.

Stijn

Paper [16]
Summary:

This paper gives an overview of different drone types which is perfectly summarized in the figure below.

Flight time plotted against vehicle mass

‘We do not foresee major scientific or technological roadblocks to achieving higher levels of autonomous control in research and commercial drones within the next 5 years’. The biggest roadblock now is the legal roadblock, meaning the biggest thing that is holding back the development of drones is the rules constraining them.


Paper [17]
Summary:

Drones sent out with a 911 call. So for a lot of different applications: “having a stroke, panic or anxiety attack, drug overdose, asthma attack, and injury. Police emergencies involved robbery in stores, domestic violence of neighbours, and threats at work.”. Drones can be sent out to help in these situations: videotape, communication with the dispatcher, medical robot etc. Improve: communication, camera work, trust by the public, indoor flight.


Paper [18]
Summary:

Earthquake & Floods: good for aerial reconnaissance
Forrest fire: good for fire detection, intervention monitoring?
Nuclear accident: good in every scenario


Paper [19]
Summary:

Information on water as an extinguisher. Water flux density, droplet size, spray coverage and spray momentum change with the types of fire encountered. When the correct characteristics are active it can even extinguish liquid fuelled fire types (oil, diesel, heptane)


Paper [20]
Summary:

The fire extinguishing balls available in the global marketplace are not effective in aiding in building fires, but it can extinguish short grass fires quite effectively. These balls are around 0.5 kg, so this paper looks into making heavy payload drones which can carry a payload of 15 kg and a scouting drone with a thermal sensor.

Pepijn

Paper [21]
Summary:

Fire has always been a hazard to mankind. Over the years several ways to prevent a fire have been established but it still is a problem. Fire education and safety are only a preventive solution, but fires will also arise as a natural phenomenon, thus making it unpreventable.

Current solutions are conventional fire hoses, fire trucks that come with a team of firefighters and aerial reinforcements that make use of fire-retardant chemicals. Tanks of these are also attached to unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and these UAV’s are another solution to the fire problem.

Fires in a remote area are harder to extinguish. Since most of the time aerial vehicles are used, these vehicles need to refuel on extinguishant after every drop, thus making it time-consuming, which allows fires to grow. A solution to the problem would be to have a UAV that is constantly supplied with extinguishant.

This UAV sprays water or chemicals through a nozzle smaller than a regular fire hose. It is made to stay in the air while extinguishing and thus to be stable while doing it. The hose acts as a connection to the ground and through this hose there is a continuous supply of extinguishant and electricity. A command and control unit gives off this supply and acts as a launchpad and storage for the drones. Such a command unit can be put into a vehicle. The UAV’s should stay in the air until all fire is extinguished. It also has a backup battery for emergencies and will be equipped with a parachute system, an airbag system, propellor covers and an emergency brake system. It has four rotors that can be controlled separately. It makes use of thermal sensors so that the controller can see the sources of fire better and has normal cameras and a night vision camera. Controls and sensor readings are sent to a controller, which can be operated by artificial intelligence or a human, on the ground, preferably close to the command and control unit.


Paper [22]
Summary:

Firefighting helicopters have the problem of not being able to extinguish fires that break out inside buildings. There is a development going on in which unmanned aerial vehicles replace the need for a trained firefighting pilot, but these UAV’s have the same problem.

A solution to this problem is a fire fighting drone, outfitted with several body parts, a turret for extinguishing fires with chemicals, the possibility of dropping a fire extinguishing bomb and the possibility of saving lives, dependent on the state of the fire, by dropping gas masks, respirators etc.

The drone is able to counter the fire within the first few minutes of the case of the fire and to prevent a second fire from breaking out. It is able to perform make an efficient choice for a certain fire situation, consisting of the options to focus on saving lives or extinguish the fires. The drone can fly into a building and rapidly move across an uneven floor by using its wheels that are driven by configured servo-motors.

The drones can be connected to a central monitoring apparatus via a wireless network to transmit fire image signals so that an evaluator can take proper measures. The administrator terminal can be a PC, a PDA or a smartphone. The drone can be modified easily.


Paper [23]
Summary:

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and drones are becoming more popular among private consumers, governments and private companies. UAV’s can impact society on several levels, since there are concerns for safety, privacy and regulation. One use for UAV’s is law enforcement for preventing, controlling and solving crime.

Most of the participants in studies kind of understand the pros and cons of police UAV usage, the pros being increased safety, less crime and lower risk to officers. Cons were privacy concerns, unfavorable public opinion and people targeting the UAV’s.

Individuals within society show different levels of support for these drones, based on racial composition of a neighborhood where a UAV is flying over. Conservatives show more support for law enforcement drones than liberals do. Furthermore there are more different levels of support between liberals, libertarians, conservatives and authoritarians.


Paper [24]
Summary:

Drones present a potential privacy threat. Law enforcement agencies are increasingly using drones, since these drones offer benefits for the police. Drones can save video footage showing private property, accidents, and violent crime. All sorts of technology can be attached to a drone. Drones unlock the opportunity to surveil entire cities.

Lawmakers can provide protection against armed drones that surveil persistently and warrantless by banning weaponization, pressing warrant requirements and enforcing policies that outline public access to footage. If controlled properly, police drones can serve legitimate law enforcement goals without becoming tools of unnecessary and intrusive surveillance.


Paper [25]
Summary:

While there is widespread opposition to the acquisition and deployment of drones for both surveillance and combat units at the mass and elite levels, individuals and groups differ in the specifics of their arguments. Among domestic and international opponents of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technologies, we can identify arguments that take issue with: specific aspects of the weapons themselves (such as their ability to target precisely); the character of an individual or society that uses these weapons; the ways in which these weapons can change the relationship between a combatant and his adversary; or the way that this technology creates new international norms or doctrines for the conduct of warfare Thus, anti-drone arguments come in different variants, rely on differing assumptions, and lead to differing policy recommendations, from an absolute ban on their existence to a more nuanced set of guidelines for their creation and deployment. For a commander or planner who wishes to respond to ethical arguments being raised about drones, this Letort Paper can serve as a type of field guide, helping the decision-maker to identify the type of argument being made and the specific concerns which undergird this type of ethical thinking. Knowing this information, decision-makers are better equipped with specific responses to address these concerns.

References

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