PRE2017 3 Groep11

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====Considerations for choosing this concept====
====Considerations for choosing this concept====
Several concepts have been considered, which can be seen in the section 'Concepts'. First, a concept that was considered was a platform that holds the package on the platform with two grippers . The disadvantage of this was the fact that this system would need two lock mechanisms and an extra secured parcel, which would make the system too complicated and too expensive.  Another concept that had been considered was to mount the platform at a higher altitude, for example next to a window. A major advantage of this system is that no locks or such are needed, because the platform would simply be too hard to reach for potential thieves. However, this system is not applicable in any other situation, so this wouldn't be useful. Another concept, which is not going to be worked out further, is a platform that can close the package in itself. The platform would do this by wrapping itself around the package, so that other people can no longer access it. An advantage of this concept is that there is no need for a special box for the package, but it would be very hard to build. Obviously there was also looked at the finally chosen concept, as described in the previous section. First of all, this concept is appliccable in multiple situations. It can be put on the ground, in a garden for example; attached to a wall, or even mounted into the roof of a house (this is very costly however). Also, the system is quite simple to use.
Several concepts have been considered, which can be seen in the section 'Concepts'. First, a concept that was considered was a platform that holds the package on the platform with two grippers . The disadvantage of this was the fact that this system would need two lock mechanisms and an extra secured parcel, which would make the system too complicated and too expensive.  Another concept that had been considered was to mount the platform at a higher altitude, for example next to a window. A major advantage of this system is that no locks or such are needed, because the platform would simply be too hard to reach for potential thieves. However, this system is not applicable in any other situation, so this wouldn't be useful. Another concept, which is not going to be worked out further, is a platform that can close the package in itself. The platform would do this by wrapping itself around the package, so that other people can no longer access it. An advantage of this concept is that there is no need for a special box for the package, but it would be very hard to build. Obviously there was also looked at the finally chosen concept, as described in the previous section. First of all, this concept is appliccable in multiple situations. It can be put on the ground, in a garden for example; attached to a wall, or even mounted into the roof of a house (this is very costly however). Also, the system is quite simple to use.
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<br> The considerations above have also been graded in a table, in order to make a rational decision. This table can be seen below:
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<br> The considerations above have also been graded in a table, in order to make a rational decision. In this table, all concepts have been scored on certain important subjects on a scale from 1 to 5. Thereby, all subjects have a certain weight, representing the importance of the subject. This weight is rated between 0 and 1. This table can be seen below:
{| class="wikitable" | border="1" style="border-collapse:collapse; text-align: center; width: 40%"   
{| class="wikitable" | border="1" style="border-collapse:collapse; text-align: center; width: 40%"   

Revision as of 17:24, 7 March 2018

PRE2017_3_Groep11_drafts

Contents

Coaching Questions

Coaching Questions Group 11

Problem statement and objectives

Problem statement

The usage of drones has become popular in various fields of work and also for recreational use. Drones have a promising perspective in a lot of different areas, like military, surveillance and package delivery. In the current state of the delivery drones the buyer need to place a landing pad in a place with enough free space around it. Therefore the buyer needs to be home when the delivery is done, since the landing pad could be blown away due to wind for example. Furthermore, the way drones are delivering now can be harmful for bystanders. Kids and pets that don’t understand that the rotor blades could be harmful could be damaged by the drones. And the drones themselves can be broken if a pet uses it as a play toy. These problems take away from the ease that should come with using the delivery drone technology. The packages that are delivered are easily stolen in any other place than the back yard, and certain weather conditions could be harmful for the package if the package is exposed to these condition too long. As described above, the last meters of the so called “last mile delivery” contain multiple problems that need to be tackled before the drone delivery system can really become mainstream. A certain landing pad that has its own designated place, that can hold the package for a sufficient amount of time and are weather/theft proof could be a solution for these problems.

Objectives

  • Develop a way in which a drone can safely drop off a package, considering the following components:
    • The parcel itself, which is carried by the drone
    • The type of drone that can carry a parcel and drop it off
    • The landing platform for the drone at the delivery address
  • Consider the risk of theft
  • Consider the location of the landing platform
  • Consider safety risks for bystanders

Who are the stakeholders

Users

  • Product sellers (companies)
  • Product buyers (consumers/companies)

Society

  • Governments in urban planning
  • Neighborhoods where drones fly over

Enterprise

  • Delivery services(companies)

What do the stakeholders require

Users

  • Fast and reliable service
  • Low prices
  • Privacy of products
  • Non-invasive service

Society

  • Drones should not lead to annoyance for people living under "drone routes"

Enterprise

  • Laws that allow for commercial drone flights over urban areas

RPC's

Requirements

  • There should be a clearance of 50 cm from the center of the platform to any other object, so there is enough clearance to let a drone land
  • The package casing must be weather resistant, the package may not get wet
  • A platform must be able to be used by more than one person

Preferences

  • The platform should be as compact as possible
  • The platform must be placed in such a way that people can easily access it
  • The package should not encounter too much impact
  • The landing platform should be cheap
  • Easy operation
  • Notification should be send when package arrives
  • Platform and drone can identify each other, to insure the right package is delivered at the right platform
  • The platform should be installable in a wide range of environments
  • The platform should have a neutral appearance

Constraints

  • The platform must be able to cummunicate whether there is room for a new package
  • The package casing must have a lock mechanism
  • A drone must be able to land on the platform, or drop a package on/in it without damaging it
  • The drone may not cause harm to people/pets/other obstacles
  • The platform must be able to receive a package of max 2.5 kg and 40 x 40 x 40 cm

Concepts

Interaction platform-parcel

  • The box must be made of waterproof hard plastic. It can be sent back for a certain amount, like a deposit.
  • While approaching the destined platform, a code confirms if the correct platform is being approached.
  • The drone carries a box with two hooks on corners opposite to the side where the box can be opened.
  • Drone carries a box with a lock; the base will lock it in place with an arm / magnet / etc.
  • Drone carries an ordinary box; the base will put a cage around it..
  • The platform itself holds the parcel instead of an external container. The parcel is transfered from the drone to the platform.
  • The platform where the package is deliverd is placed on top of a spring. The platform will be easy to acces for the drone, after the package is placed on top of the platform it will drop.
    Then the top of the protection box is placed on top of the package.
  • Same idea as above, but the spring is replaced with an lift that drops the package down.
  • A platform that forms around the packages when a certain weight is put on it.

Lock mechanism

  • The side of the box that can be opened is faced down, so potential thieves can't open it.
  • The hooks on the box clamp on the platform and lock, so the box can't be opened anymore.
  • A code lock, of which the code is shared with the recipient via email.
  • Fingerprint sensor
  • RFID with mobile phone
  • Own standard key/code/password
  • Identification of the right platform/drone
  • QR code
  • RFID
  • Radio / IR / other radiation to transfer information
  • Barcode
  • Box opens after estimated delivery time has gone by.

Location landing platform

  • Roof
  • Garden
  • balcony
  • Out of a window(maybe attached to wall in order to keep window closed).
  • Drone can enter specific part of house.
  • Attached to the wall next to the front door.
  • For appartments, a room easily accesible for drones where a certain amount of landing platforms are(Package need to be retrieved in x minutes, so it can be used by other residents).

"MICHAEL system"

(See source:A Multi-Modality Mobility Concept for a Small Package Delivery UAV)

  • Joint landing platforms for all the people in a neighborhood.
  • Flying drones to deliver to this point.
  • Driving drones deliver to front door.
  • Or, People retrieve the package themselves from the landing pad.

Final design

Chosen concept

Concept

It has been chosen to make a box as a landing platform, in which a drone can drop a parcel. This box will identify the drone by a QR-/barcode on the bottom of it. Once the correct code has been spotted, the platform will open, so the drone can drop the package in it. The drone can also identify the right platform by a QR-/barcode on top of the platform. When the recipient wants to take the parcel out of the box, he/she can unlock a door in the side of the box by using the NFC module in their phone.

Considerations for choosing this concept

Several concepts have been considered, which can be seen in the section 'Concepts'. First, a concept that was considered was a platform that holds the package on the platform with two grippers . The disadvantage of this was the fact that this system would need two lock mechanisms and an extra secured parcel, which would make the system too complicated and too expensive. Another concept that had been considered was to mount the platform at a higher altitude, for example next to a window. A major advantage of this system is that no locks or such are needed, because the platform would simply be too hard to reach for potential thieves. However, this system is not applicable in any other situation, so this wouldn't be useful. Another concept, which is not going to be worked out further, is a platform that can close the package in itself. The platform would do this by wrapping itself around the package, so that other people can no longer access it. An advantage of this concept is that there is no need for a special box for the package, but it would be very hard to build. Obviously there was also looked at the finally chosen concept, as described in the previous section. First of all, this concept is appliccable in multiple situations. It can be put on the ground, in a garden for example; attached to a wall, or even mounted into the roof of a house (this is very costly however). Also, the system is quite simple to use.
The considerations above have also been graded in a table, in order to make a rational decision. In this table, all concepts have been scored on certain important subjects on a scale from 1 to 5. Thereby, all subjects have a certain weight, representing the importance of the subject. This weight is rated between 0 and 1. This table can be seen below:

Criteria Weight Grabber Box High Mounted Enclosed
Easy to prevent theft 0.4 3 4 2 3
Easy to use 0.2 2 4 5 4
Cost 0.3 4 3 3 4
Privacy other residents 0.3 2 3 3 2
Total sum of weighted scores 3.4 4.2 3.6 3.8

Approach, milestones and deliverables

Approach

First we will study the literature to figure out to what extent our case is already researched. After that we will attempt to determine the present day problems with the technology. From the present status of the technology we will make a list of RPC's. With that list we will create concepts, work out the best concept and assemble/build the prototype. In the design process it is very probable that we need to go back a step to eventually make a better design. In the design phase we may need to measure the drones that are available in Gemini to determine the final measurements of the design. And in the testing phase we might need drones to check if the system react to a flying drone like we designed.

Milestones

  • Literature study
  • Sources read
  • Sources summarized
  • Conceptualize
  • RPC's
  • Concepts/drawings of concepts
  • Decide a final concept
  • Work out concept
    • Choose/order materials
    • Choose/order operating system/electronic parts(Like arduino was in Engineerding Design case)
    • Costs overview
    • Building/assembling prototype
  • Test prototype

Deliverables

  • A technical report of the design process
  • A prototype of the landing pad
  • NX design of the real product
  • Final presentation explaing the design process and showing the prototype

Survey

A setup for a survey has been made. We decided not to hold it right now, since we don't have time to wait until the results come in, because we need to start building the prototype soon. Because of this we decided to hold the survey after building the prototype, when we have pictures and more questions.
https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1iMVSY1XEiBxn46ks75MAHNXn72QkF69rqFd5D89IUjg/edit?usp=sharing

Who's doing what

Week Task Responsible
1 Write introduction Everyone together
Update the wiki Everyone for themselves
Search for sources (10-2)
Summarize sources (19-2)
2 Rewrite subsections made in Week 1 Everyone together
Make a final RPC list out of the personal ones
Combine the concepts in one clear list
Specific literature study (Summerize 2 sources pp) Everyone for themselves
Think of RPC's for the landing platform
Describe or draw concepts
3 Set up a survey Camiel
Rewrite the RPC's Werner
Work out and compare concepts Kobus, Michael and Jasper
4 Finish final Concepts -
Figure out where we are allowed to build -
Determine materials for actual product -
Determine materials for prototype -
Figure out the electronic systems -
Make/take survey -
Update wiki -
Plan(mail/ask) a real drone session -
Order parts(Like arduino or building materials) -
5 Prototype hardware -
Prototype software -
Assembling hardware/software -
Make/take Survey -
Analysis survey -
Update Wiki -
6 Prototype hardware -
Prototype software -
Assembling hardware/software -
Analysis/conclusion survey -
Update Wiki -
7 Finish Presentation -
Finish prototype software -
Finish prototype hardware -
Presenter -
Finish Wiki -


Sources and summaries of the general subject

Auto-Selection Of Package Delivery Location Based On Estimated Time Of Delivery
Drone shipping versus truck delivery in a cross-docking system with multiple fleets and products
Drone delivery models for healthcare
Multi-Agent Path Finding with Payload Transfers and the Package-Exchange Robot-Routing Problem
Parcel delivery in an urban environment using unmanned aerial systems: a vision paper
The Sky’s (Not) the Limit - Influence of Expertise and Privacy Disposition on the Use of Multicopters
Post-Production Analysis Approach for drone delivery fleet
A multi-objective green UAV routing problem
The Vehicle Routing Problem with Drones: Extended Models and Connections
Logistics support for a delivery drone fleet
A cost-optimization model in multi-agent system routing for drone delivery
The regulation of civilian drones impacts on behavioral privacy
Understanding security threats in consumer drones through the lens of discovery quadcopter family
Drone-Aided Healthcare Services for Patients with Chronic diseases in Rural Areas
Can unmanned aerial systems (drones) be used for the routine transport of chemistry, hematology, and coagulation laboratory specimens?
Autonomous Aerial Cargo/Utility system
The economic and operational value of using drones to transport vaccines
Drone transport of microbes in blood and sputum laboratory specimens
Privacy and drones: Unmanned aerial vehicles
Civilian drones, privacy, and the federal-state balance
A cost-benefit analysis of Amazon Prime Air
Optimizing a Drone Network to Deliver Automated External Defibrillators

Sources and summaries on the specific case

Robotic Aerial Vehicle Delivery System and Method
Secure Handling of Unsupervised Package Drop Off at Smarthome
Autonomous and automatic landing system for drones
Landing Pad For Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Delivery
Machine-readable delivery platform for automated package delivery
Drone Operated Delivery Receptacle
Unattended Delivery Drop Box
System and Method for Controlling Drone Delivery or Pick up During a Delivery or Pickup Phase of Drone Operation
Delivery platform for unmanned areal vehicles
A Multi-Modality Mobility Concept for a Small Package Delivery UAV

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