PRE2016 4 Groep1

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(Assignments and results)
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The most important thing for parents is the safety of their child. Having to constantly watch the child costs a lot of time and effort for the parents. To help parents, we have come up with an idea so parents do not have to worry about the child, but guarantees safety.  
The most important thing for parents is the safety of their child. Having to constantly watch the child costs a lot of time and effort for the parents. To help parents, we have come up with an idea so parents do not have to worry about the child, but guarantees safety.  
-
The concept is a smart house that enhances the safety of the child. For example, if the mother has to go grocery shopping, normally she would have to take the child with her. With a smart house she can leave the child at home and the house will keep the child safe for the duration the mother is away.  
+
The concept is a SMART house that enhances the safety of the child. For example, if the mother has to go grocery shopping, normally she would have to take the child with her. With a smart house she can leave the child at home and the house will keep the child safe for the duration the mother is away.  
-
This is concept for children with an age between 1 and 8 years old. At this age, a child is able to move by itself but is not able to stay at home alone. The smart house keeps the child away from dangerous situations or object. For example, when the house detects the child near a sink with hot water, it shuts off the hot water so the child cannot burn himself. But also checking the water level in sink and shutting off the water when it gets to a level where the child could drown.
+
This is concept for children with an age between 1 and 8 years old. At this age, a child is able to move by itself but is not able to stay at home alone. The smart house keeps the child away from dangerous situations or objects. For example, when the house detects the child near a sink with hot water, it shuts off the hot water so the child cannot burn himself/herself. But also checking the water level in sink and shutting off the water when it gets to a level where the child could drown.
====Objectives====
====Objectives====
Line 44: Line 44:
Further objectives are to investigate what potential dangers there are for a child in a house. The most important factor in this system is ‘danger recognition’, other functions the system can use are for example closing/locking doors, shutting off the water or locking drawers. The communication between different devices that the home uses has to be smooth. Also the possibility of removing and implementing the system easily is an important objective. Because the intended audience for this system are children between 1 and 8 years old, the system has a specific task that gets reduced every year.
Further objectives are to investigate what potential dangers there are for a child in a house. The most important factor in this system is ‘danger recognition’, other functions the system can use are for example closing/locking doors, shutting off the water or locking drawers. The communication between different devices that the home uses has to be smooth. Also the possibility of removing and implementing the system easily is an important objective. Because the intended audience for this system are children between 1 and 8 years old, the system has a specific task that gets reduced every year.
-
In this project, the impact from the USE perspective is analysed, a concept design will be made and will be evaluated from different perspectives, for example like cost and benefit.
+
In this project, the impact from the USE perspective is analysed, a concept design will be made and will be evaluated from different perspectives, for example cost and benefit.
====Users====
====Users====
-
The main users are the parents of the child. They are buying a system that gets installed in their house to protect their child. They have to be sure that the child will be kept save, the child self will barely know the system is there. A system that satisfies the parents needs is automatically a good system for the child. But still the system has to be child safe, and the child itself is also a user. When the parents already have an older child or a nanny visits several times a week, they can be seen as primary users too.
+
The primary users are the parents of the child. They are buying a system that gets installed in their house to protect their child. They have to be sure that the child will be kept save, the child self will barely know the system is there. A system that satisfies the parents needs is automatically a good system for the child. But still the system has to be child safe, and the child itself is also a user. When the parents already have an older child or a nanny visits several times a week, they can be seen as primary users too.
Secondary users are the maintenance people that install the system, and during its life cycle conduct maintenance.
Secondary users are the maintenance people that install the system, and during its life cycle conduct maintenance.
Line 222: Line 222:
[[File:Gantt_Chart.PNG|800 px]]
[[File:Gantt_Chart.PNG|800 px]]
 +
 +
=== Research outcomes ===
 +
 +
Some information gathered from the first research that is done. Not really processed in detail so it is still raw information to read.
 +
 +
'''Types of accidents'''
 +
 +
The most severe injuries are associated with heat-related accidents and falls from a height.[1]
 +
 +
Younger children have a higher percentage of burns and scalds as well as poisoning and ingestion accidents.[1]
 +
 +
The largest number of accidents happen in the living/dining room. However, the most serious accidents happen in the kitchen and on the stairs.[1]
 +
 +
It is difficult to give a true cost of treating children's accidents as outpatients and inpatients but in the past it has been estimated at more than £275 million a year.[1]
 +
 +
Safety and child development [see 1 – corresponding section]
 +
 +
 +
''Accidents:''
 +
 +
Around 10 children die as a result of falls each year[1]
 +
 +
Domestic fires pose one of the greatest risks to children. Children playing with matches and lighters frequently start house fires.[1]
 +
 +
Children can also suffer burns after contact with open fires, a cooker, irons, curling tongs and hair straighteners, cigarettes, matches, cigarette lighters and many other hot surfaces.[1]
 +
 +
Every year children die following an accident with architectural glass. Many children are also injured when glass tumblers and bottles break.[1]
 +
 +
Suffocating and choking - Babies and small children are most at risk from choking because they examine things around them by putting them in their mouths. [1]
 +
 +
Drowning - Children can drown in less than 3cm of water. They should be under constant supervision when in or near any water.[1]
 +
 +
List of types of accidents: Burns, Poisoning, Drowning, Falls, Choking, strangulation, and suffocation[2]
 +
 +
Most of the accidents take place at home. [2]
 +
 +
 +
References:
 +
 +
[1]http://www.rospa.com/home-safety/advice/child-safety/accidents-to-children/
 +
 +
[2]http://injuryprevention.bmj.com/content/injuryprev/2/4/290.full.pdf?sid=0e46d567-3cc5-4180-9154-056b903f6cbc/
 +
 +
'''Stats and state of the art'''
 +
 +
On average, 12,175 children 0 to 19 years of age died each year in the United States from an
 +
 +
unintentional injury. Combining all unintentional injury deaths among those between 0 and 19 years,
 +
 +
motor vehicle traffic–related deaths were the leading cause.
 +
 +
For children less than 1 year of age, two–thirds of injury deaths were due to suffocation. Drowning
 +
 +
was the leading cause injury death for those 1 to 4 years of age. For children 5 to 19 years of age, the
 +
 +
most injury deaths were due to being an occupant in a motor vehicle traffic crash. The poisoning
 +
 +
death rate for those older than 15 years of age was at least five times the rates of the younger age
 +
 +
groups, and the suffocation death rate for infants was over 16 times the rates for all older age
 +
 +
groups. [3]
 +
 +
 +
An estimated 9.2 million children annually had an initial emergency department visit for an
 +
 +
unintentional injury.
 +
 +
Each year, approximately 2.8 million children had an initial emergency department visit for injuries
 +
 +
from a fall. For children less than 1 year of age, falls accounted for over 50% of nonfatal injuries.
 +
 +
Falls was the leading cause of nonfatal injury for all age groups less than 15.
 +
 +
For children ages 0 to 9, the next two leading causes were being stuck by or against an object and
 +
 +
animal bites or insect stings. For children 10 to 14 years of age, the next leading causes were being
 +
 +
struck by or against an object and overexertion. For children 15 to 19 years of age, the three leading
 +
 +
causes of nonfatal injuries were being struck by or against an object, falls, and motor vehicle occupant injuries.
 +
 +
Nonfatal suffocation rates were highest for those less than 1 year of age. Rates for fires or burns,
 +
 +
and drowning were highest for children 4 years and younger. Children 1 to 4 years of age had the
 +
 +
highest rates of nonfatal falls and poisoning. Injury rates related to motor vehicles was highest in
 +
 +
children 15 to 19 years of age. [3]
 +
 +
 +
Between the ages of 1 and 4 and for all five-year age groups between the ages of 10 and 34,
 +
 +
accidents were the single most common cause of death. Among the five-year age groups between
 +
 +
the ages of 10 and 34, accidents accounted for one fifth or more of all deaths, with this share
 +
 +
peaking at 36 % for people aged 15–19 (see Figure 1). Looking across the age groups from youngest
 +
 +
to oldest, there is a large jump in the number (and also the share) of deaths from accidents when
 +
 +
moving from the age group 10–14 to the age group 15–19: there were almost five times as many
 +
 +
deaths from accidents in the older of these two age groups than in the younger one. This large jump
 +
 +
can, in part, be attributed to deaths from transport accidents, which alone accounted for nearly one
 +
 +
quarter (24.3 %) of all deaths among people aged 15–19. [4]
 +
 +
 +
For children aged 1–4, the most common causes of death are external factors (22 % in 2011). In
 +
 +
particular, 20 % of deaths in children aged 1–4 occurred due to accidents (transport accidents, falls,
 +
 +
drowning and submersion, poisoning and other external causes). Congenital malformations,
 +
 +
deformations and chromosomal abnormalities were the next common cause of death, accounting
 +
 +
for 17 % of total causes, followed by neoplasms (16 %) and diseases of the nervous system and of
 +
 +
the respiratory system (both 9 %). [5]
 +
 +
Neoplasm is the main cause of death among children aged 5–9 (accounting for 28 % of total causes
 +
 +
for this age group in 2011), followed by external causes of death (25 %). For children aged between
 +
 +
10 and 14 years, external factors are the most common cause of death (32 % of deaths in 2011),
 +
 +
followed by neoplasms (23 %). [5]
 +
 +
 +
''Opening door mechanics:''
 +
 +
 +
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sliding_door_operator
 +
 +
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swing-door_operator
 +
 +
Door locking method: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smart_lock
 +
 +
 +
''Robot localisation:''
 +
 +
* Robotic Room-Level Localization Using Multiple Sets of Sonar Measurements by Huaping Liu,
 +
 +
Fuchun Sun, Bin Fang, and Xinyu Zhang, January 2017.
 +
 +
* Simultaneous people tracking and robot localization in dynamic social spaces by
 +
 +
Dylan F. Glas, Yoichi Morales, Takayuki Kanda, Hiroshi Ishiguro and Norihiro Hagita, January
 +
 +
2015.
 +
 +
* Wireless and Pyroelectric Sensory Fusion System for Indoor Human/Robot Localization and
 +
 +
Monitoring by Ren C. Luo, Fellow, IEEE, and Ogst Chen, June 2013.
 +
 +
 +
''References:''
 +
 +
[3] https://www.cdc.gov/safechild/child_injury_data.html
 +
 +
[4] http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Accidents_and_injuries_statistics
 +
 +
[5] http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Being_young_in_Europe_today_-_health#Life_expectancy_and_mortality_rates

Revision as of 19:30, 30 April 2017

Contents

Group Members

  • Sjoerd van Helden 0893960
  • Stijn Middelhuis 0947014
  • Roy Niemark 0956824
  • Andrei Pintillie 0980402
  • Dennis Struver 0955477

Week 1

Below the progress after the first week is given. There is worked on several different assignments and a start is made with the project.

Meeting outcome

Agreements for meetings: Monday after presentation/feedback we have a meeting of 1 hour. After that we can work on the divided Self Study Assignments (SSA’s) if we want but that is optional. When needed, there can also be a meeting planned at thursday afternoon.

Keep our wiki up to date, the wiki will be checked on Sunday evening for the feedback on Monday.

Possible subjects:

  • SMART Home for children – Make the house safe for children, lock doors, keep cabinets locked, give alerts to the parent, turn down the hot water. Important: Cost (USE perspective).
  • Educational robot for children with autism – Help children with autism get more communicative.
  • Distribution robot – Distribute the right amount of medicine to an elderly person at the times he/she has to take his/her medicine.
  • Green energy – Solar panels.

Assignments and results

Subject

The most important thing for parents is the safety of their child. Having to constantly watch the child costs a lot of time and effort for the parents. To help parents, we have come up with an idea so parents do not have to worry about the child, but guarantees safety.

The concept is a SMART house that enhances the safety of the child. For example, if the mother has to go grocery shopping, normally she would have to take the child with her. With a smart house she can leave the child at home and the house will keep the child safe for the duration the mother is away.

This is concept for children with an age between 1 and 8 years old. At this age, a child is able to move by itself but is not able to stay at home alone. The smart house keeps the child away from dangerous situations or objects. For example, when the house detects the child near a sink with hot water, it shuts off the hot water so the child cannot burn himself/herself. But also checking the water level in sink and shutting off the water when it gets to a level where the child could drown.

Objectives

The main objective is to research a system that will detect whether there is a child in the room or an adult. Because, if there is an adult in the room, the child is much less at risk. This SMART home system has implementations all over the house that it can use to enhance the safety of the child.

Further objectives are to investigate what potential dangers there are for a child in a house. The most important factor in this system is ‘danger recognition’, other functions the system can use are for example closing/locking doors, shutting off the water or locking drawers. The communication between different devices that the home uses has to be smooth. Also the possibility of removing and implementing the system easily is an important objective. Because the intended audience for this system are children between 1 and 8 years old, the system has a specific task that gets reduced every year.

In this project, the impact from the USE perspective is analysed, a concept design will be made and will be evaluated from different perspectives, for example cost and benefit.

Users

The primary users are the parents of the child. They are buying a system that gets installed in their house to protect their child. They have to be sure that the child will be kept save, the child self will barely know the system is there. A system that satisfies the parents needs is automatically a good system for the child. But still the system has to be child safe, and the child itself is also a user. When the parents already have an older child or a nanny visits several times a week, they can be seen as primary users too. Secondary users are the maintenance people that install the system, and during its life cycle conduct maintenance.

Approach

First we are going to study the contemplated subject. We will set goals, make assumptions and discuss what we want to have in the end with the respect to the USE perspective. We are going to focus on an average environment and will extend from there. At the start we are going to do research on the projects about similar subjects that already exist and look at what is possible in this project with the current technology. Also we want to know the basics about children in their home, frequent accidents and injuries that occur and preferences of parents in general. With this knowledge and the set goals we will design a concept for a ‘safety smart-home’ and elaborate on the features, possibilities and extensions.

Project planning

For a project it is important to have a good project planning. Below the planning for this project is given. The week planning and a role distribution is made to keep track of the progress and provide a guideline while working on this project. The planning follows the process and sets several milestones that are important to achieve. The planning is made at the begin of the project and has some room for adjustments, if necessary. The first two weeks are dedicated mainly to doing research and problem defining. In the third week a start should be made with the first concept design. The weeks to follow are dedicated to finishing the first concept design and making the complete final design of the SMART home. In these weeks the process, decisions and problems should be checked and be described. In week seven the last two milestones should be achieved: finish the concept design and evaluate it. During every week, the wiki should be updated with the progress made up until that point. The last week is dedicated to preparing for the final presentation and finalizing the wiki.

The general approach of this project consists of the following milestones:

  1. Research background, state of the art and similar existing systems
  2. Conceptualizing the subject with respect to the knowledge gathered
  3. Make a global design for a single room
  4. Extend and finalize the concept design
  5. Evaluate the design concept and work out possible extensions and cost/benefit-analysis

Weekplanning

Week 1

  • Determine the subject
    • Formulate the problem
    • Create idea’s for a concept
    • Objectives
    • Involved users
  • Research about background, state of the art and similar existing systems
  • Create planning and presentation

Week 2

  • Finish the research (Milestone 1)
    • Children and accidents
    • Existing SMART Homes and its collaboration with safety measures
    • Typical house environments for children
    • State of the art technology that could be implemented or used.
    • Existing systems made for safety of children
    • User benefit
  • Determine important and critical points of interest
  • Look into the subject from a USE perspective and determine relevant USE aspects

Week 3

  • Conceptualize the subject with the knowledge gathered (Milestone 2)
    • Composition of the room
    • Components (technological) which can be used
    • Elaboration of the design requirements
  • Start of the global design for a single room
    • Search for essential information
    • Determine which room considering several factors that are of importance
    • Determine the software for the design
    • Decide the degree of detail that the design should have

Week 4

  • Finish the global design for a single room (Milestone 3)
  • Elaboration of the global design:
    • Process, decisions, result and problems on the wiki
    • List of possible extensions
    • Approximate cost and risk prevention for this design

Week 5

  • Adjust and/or extend the conceptualization definition if necessary
  • Start of the global design for a home
    • Search for essential information
    • Decide the degree of detail that the design should have
    • Decide which implementations are optional

Week 6

  • Extend and refine the design for a home
    • Continue working on the design
    • Refining the design and implementations for specific rooms

Week 7

  • Finish the SMART Home design (Milestone 4)
    • Elaboration of the process, decisions, result and problems
    • List of possible extensions
  • Evaluate the SMART Home design (Milestone 5)
    • The design
    • Optional implementations/extensions
    • Impact and shortcomings
    • Cost and benefit analysis
  • Create presentation

Week 8

  • Finish, prepare and give the presentation
  • Finish the wiki
    • Reorganize if necessary
    • Check the progress
    • Complete the final wiki page

Role distribution

Task name Start End Duration (days) Role distribution
Determine the subject 24-4-2017 25-4-2017 1 Everyone
Create the planning 24-4-2017 1-5-2017 7 Dennis, Roy
Background and state of the art research 24-4-2017 8-5-2017 14 Sjoerd, Andrei
USE perspective and aspects 24-4-2017 8-5-2017 14 Stijn, Dennis, Roy
Composition of the room 8-5-2017 11-5-2017 3 Sjoerd, Roy
Design requirements 8-5-2017 11-5-2017 3 Dennis, Stijn
Global design for a single room 11-5-2017 22-5-2017 11 Andrei, Roy, Dennis
Elaborate the design 22-5-2017 25-5-2017 3 Sjoerd, Stijn
Possible extensions 22-5-2017 25-5-2017 3 Sjoerd, Dennis
Global design for a home 25-5-2017 7-6-2017 13 Roy, Stijn, Andrei
Evaluate the single room design 7-6-2017 12-6-2017 5 Dennis, Roy
Evaluate the home design 7-6-2017 12-6-2017 5 Sjoerd, Andrei, Stijn

Gantt Chart

Research outcomes

Some information gathered from the first research that is done. Not really processed in detail so it is still raw information to read.

Types of accidents

The most severe injuries are associated with heat-related accidents and falls from a height.[1]

Younger children have a higher percentage of burns and scalds as well as poisoning and ingestion accidents.[1]

The largest number of accidents happen in the living/dining room. However, the most serious accidents happen in the kitchen and on the stairs.[1]

It is difficult to give a true cost of treating children's accidents as outpatients and inpatients but in the past it has been estimated at more than £275 million a year.[1]

Safety and child development [see 1 – corresponding section]


Accidents:

Around 10 children die as a result of falls each year[1]

Domestic fires pose one of the greatest risks to children. Children playing with matches and lighters frequently start house fires.[1]

Children can also suffer burns after contact with open fires, a cooker, irons, curling tongs and hair straighteners, cigarettes, matches, cigarette lighters and many other hot surfaces.[1]

Every year children die following an accident with architectural glass. Many children are also injured when glass tumblers and bottles break.[1]

Suffocating and choking - Babies and small children are most at risk from choking because they examine things around them by putting them in their mouths. [1]

Drowning - Children can drown in less than 3cm of water. They should be under constant supervision when in or near any water.[1]

List of types of accidents: Burns, Poisoning, Drowning, Falls, Choking, strangulation, and suffocation[2]

Most of the accidents take place at home. [2]


References:

[1]http://www.rospa.com/home-safety/advice/child-safety/accidents-to-children/

[2]http://injuryprevention.bmj.com/content/injuryprev/2/4/290.full.pdf?sid=0e46d567-3cc5-4180-9154-056b903f6cbc/

Stats and state of the art

On average, 12,175 children 0 to 19 years of age died each year in the United States from an

unintentional injury. Combining all unintentional injury deaths among those between 0 and 19 years,

motor vehicle traffic–related deaths were the leading cause.

For children less than 1 year of age, two–thirds of injury deaths were due to suffocation. Drowning

was the leading cause injury death for those 1 to 4 years of age. For children 5 to 19 years of age, the

most injury deaths were due to being an occupant in a motor vehicle traffic crash. The poisoning

death rate for those older than 15 years of age was at least five times the rates of the younger age

groups, and the suffocation death rate for infants was over 16 times the rates for all older age

groups. [3]


An estimated 9.2 million children annually had an initial emergency department visit for an

unintentional injury.

Each year, approximately 2.8 million children had an initial emergency department visit for injuries

from a fall. For children less than 1 year of age, falls accounted for over 50% of nonfatal injuries.

Falls was the leading cause of nonfatal injury for all age groups less than 15.

For children ages 0 to 9, the next two leading causes were being stuck by or against an object and

animal bites or insect stings. For children 10 to 14 years of age, the next leading causes were being

struck by or against an object and overexertion. For children 15 to 19 years of age, the three leading

causes of nonfatal injuries were being struck by or against an object, falls, and motor vehicle occupant injuries.

Nonfatal suffocation rates were highest for those less than 1 year of age. Rates for fires or burns,

and drowning were highest for children 4 years and younger. Children 1 to 4 years of age had the

highest rates of nonfatal falls and poisoning. Injury rates related to motor vehicles was highest in

children 15 to 19 years of age. [3]


Between the ages of 1 and 4 and for all five-year age groups between the ages of 10 and 34,

accidents were the single most common cause of death. Among the five-year age groups between

the ages of 10 and 34, accidents accounted for one fifth or more of all deaths, with this share

peaking at 36 % for people aged 15–19 (see Figure 1). Looking across the age groups from youngest

to oldest, there is a large jump in the number (and also the share) of deaths from accidents when

moving from the age group 10–14 to the age group 15–19: there were almost five times as many

deaths from accidents in the older of these two age groups than in the younger one. This large jump

can, in part, be attributed to deaths from transport accidents, which alone accounted for nearly one

quarter (24.3 %) of all deaths among people aged 15–19. [4]


For children aged 1–4, the most common causes of death are external factors (22 % in 2011). In

particular, 20 % of deaths in children aged 1–4 occurred due to accidents (transport accidents, falls,

drowning and submersion, poisoning and other external causes). Congenital malformations,

deformations and chromosomal abnormalities were the next common cause of death, accounting

for 17 % of total causes, followed by neoplasms (16 %) and diseases of the nervous system and of

the respiratory system (both 9 %). [5]

Neoplasm is the main cause of death among children aged 5–9 (accounting for 28 % of total causes

for this age group in 2011), followed by external causes of death (25 %). For children aged between

10 and 14 years, external factors are the most common cause of death (32 % of deaths in 2011),

followed by neoplasms (23 %). [5]


Opening door mechanics:


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sliding_door_operator

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swing-door_operator

Door locking method: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smart_lock


Robot localisation:

  • Robotic Room-Level Localization Using Multiple Sets of Sonar Measurements by Huaping Liu,

Fuchun Sun, Bin Fang, and Xinyu Zhang, January 2017.

  • Simultaneous people tracking and robot localization in dynamic social spaces by

Dylan F. Glas, Yoichi Morales, Takayuki Kanda, Hiroshi Ishiguro and Norihiro Hagita, January

2015.

  • Wireless and Pyroelectric Sensory Fusion System for Indoor Human/Robot Localization and

Monitoring by Ren C. Luo, Fellow, IEEE, and Ogst Chen, June 2013.


References:

[3] https://www.cdc.gov/safechild/child_injury_data.html

[4] http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Accidents_and_injuries_statistics

[5] http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Being_young_in_Europe_today_-_health#Life_expectancy_and_mortality_rates

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