PRE2015 3 Groep1 requirements

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Contents

Requirements

Functional

Must have

The drone must be able to fly, especially outdoors, in a changing environment. The building site changes a lot, so the drone must be suited for every day a bit different situation, and the drone must be able to fly its way through this building site. The drone must also be able to land safely on its own. De drone must be able to navigate through this building site to the hot spots indicated beforehand. By its navigation it must be able to find its docking station at the end of its shift or in case the battery is low. It must reach its docking station before the battery is completely empty. The drone must be able to communicate abnormalities to the guard and react at the guards decisions. Thereby the drone must never take actions it’s not allowed to without explicit permission of the guards or reject the guards decisions. Another communication aspect is the fact the drone must always confirm its location (coordinates e.g. by GPS) to the guards, and signal the guard if there occurs a defect in the drone. Defects can be a take down by for example an intruder, but also a broken propellor or suddenly empty battery. The drone must be able to detect intruders by an infrared camera and its movement sensor. The drone must be able to detect at least 99% of all intruders. After an intruder is detected and the guard has confirmed the intruder, the drone must be able to follow the intruder and take photo’s of the intruder. These photos must be send to the guard and saved somewhere there. The drone must film its restricted area .

Should have

The route it navigates must be randomly. So the drone is not predictable and therefore better applicable and less predictable. Thereby it should even land safely if one of the propellers or motors shuts down. The drone should have nearly continuous streams of data feeds, to adjust its navigation in an optimal manner. Missing data or slowly arriving data could negatively influence navigation and the reaction of the drone. It should not be possible to hack the drone. The weight of the drone should be as less as possible to reduce the impact of accidentally occurring collisions by reducing the kinetic energy. But the drone must be able to withstand mediate/moderately strong weather forces , where some robustness and therefore weight is needed. The optimal balance between those two must be found. The drone should be as silent as possible, because otherwise possible intruders will hear the drone. The done should be undetectable by its sound for distances of 10 meter or more. The drone should be easy to use for the guard. Giving validation for actions must not take long and understanding the signal the drone sends must also be easy in order to react as fast as possible.

Could have

The more complicated a drone will be the more (technological) problems are given the possibility to intervene. Therefore the more complex the drone and its actions, the greater the decrease of it’s reliability. This is why it could be useful to keep a drone as simple as possible.

Not functional

Must have

The drone is meant to surveille a specific area, and therefore must never leave the intended area. This area is surrounded by fences, which are recognition points for the drone. It must never collide with objects or persons. It must also never intentionally harm or interfere directly with someone in the building. This would be prevented by signals received from sensors on the drone. The drone must in all cases be able to react to unexpected situations in a safe, harm avoiding way. It must never harm persons in unexpected situations. The lightning and simple transmission signals must not interfere with the navigation or communication of the drone. It is especially significant when the drone can’t be controlled or influenced in its decision making by external signals.

Should have

The drone should not film outside its restricted area.It should also not harm the privacy laws in a country. Therefore it must be clear that if you enter the restricted area, there is video recording present. This should be done with signs around the area that warn you that it is forbidden to enter the area as well as that there are drones with cameras in this area. In case the drone is following a suspect, it must not follow it outside the restricted area, because this would be filming in public domain and this is illegal. The drone should also be cost reducing for security companies and therefore for corporations. Otherwise the solution is not improving the situation and therefore not very beneficial.

Want to have

In case more drones are used together, they need to communicate with each other to cover the place and to prevent them of being at the same spot. This would be useless. One solution would be one main system, which decides what spot should be next to navigate to. This way it is still random, and the drones don’t interfere.

Scenario definition

The scenario that the drone will be tested in is a construction site. The scale of these sites can vary between 300 m^2 en 2000 m^2 The shape of the sites can differ. All construction sites are outdoors. The climate is that of a Temperate Maritime Climate. (as in the Netherlands) The site is surrounded by a fence. Valuable materials are spread out all over the site There are a lot of obstacles and height differences.


Assumptions Simulation:

  • The weathereffect on the drone will be ignored
  • The simulation takes place at night
  • The light intensity will not change
  • The area is rectangular
  • The drones have an infinite battery (no recharging)
  • The drone can simultaneously move and scan for persons
  • The intruder can see the drone only within a certain radius
  • The objects that can be stolen are illustrated as point objects (treasure chests)
  • It will take some time to grab the objects
  • The speed of the intruder will be lowered while carrying load
  • The obstacles block both the fly-zone and the walk-zone for the intruder
  • Toghether with the obstacles there also will be height differences
  • When the intruder is spotted the system will signal to the watching guard

Constants/variables to be determinated by testing with the simulation:

Name Value
Height drone H = ...m
Range of camera vision (radius) R = ...m
Surface area A = ...m^2
Number of drones N = ...
Speed of the drones V(d) = ...m/s
Speed of the intruders V(i1) = ...m/s
Time to grab an object T(o) = ...s
Speed of intruder with object V(i2) = ...m/s
Time needed for drone to scan T(s) = ...s
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