0LAUK0 2018Q1 Group 2 - SotA Literature Study

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(Summaries: added sensor technology section as well as disclaimer about missing sections)
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== Summaries ==
== Summaries ==
=== Sensor Technology ===
=== Sensor Technology ===
 +
Biometric authentication is the security process using the unique biological characteristics of a
 +
person to verify their identity. This form of authentication is used in information security, law
 +
enforcement, the daily life of individuals etc.
 +
 +
The most commonly used forms of biometric authentication are fingerprint scanning and facial
 +
recognition. [1][2] An example of fingerprint scanning can be found in smartphones, millions of
 +
people worldwide unlock their smartphone every day using fingerprint scanning. Ease of access and
 +
speed are the biggest reasons behind the increasing use of this form of biometric authentication. [3]
 +
An example of facial recognition can be found in Apple’s new flagship smartphone, the iPhone X. The
 +
iPhone X uses Face ID, a facial recognition system using more than 30000 infrared dots to accurately
 +
map and read faces for authentication and can adapt to the changes of the user’s face over time. [4]
 +
 +
There exist two types of fingerprint scanning techniques, offline scanning and live-scanning. Offline
 +
scanning uses fingerprints that are obtained on paper to create a digital image. [5] Live-scanning
 +
uses an electronic fingerprint scanner to obtain these fingerprints, this is also the scanning technique
 +
used for biometric authentication on smartphones. Live-scanning can be done using three kinds of
 +
sensors: optical, solid-state and ultrasound. Optical sensors are by far the most common and capture
 +
the fingerprints by measuring the differences in the amount of reflected light from each position in
 +
the fingertip and constructs an image based on the reflected light. Solid-state sensors measure
 +
differences in physical properties, for differences in electrical current in the different parts of the
 +
finger, the closer the finger is to the sensor the higher the capacitance is, in the finger to construct
 +
an image of the fingerprint. [6] Ultrasound sensors, as the name implies utilises ultrasound to map
 +
the fingerprint. Using pulses of ultrasound and measuring where the pulse of ultrasound is absorbed
 +
or bounced back an depiction of the fingerprint is created. [7]
 +
 +
A form of authentication that provides ease of access, speed and familiarity would be of great use to
 +
an RSI preventative AI. Biometric authentication has all these qualities, making it an ideal choice of
 +
authentication for the AI.
 +
 +
=== User Interface ===
=== User Interface ===
 +
(source text not yet available in our project folder)
 +
 +
=== Repetitive Strain Injury ===
=== Repetitive Strain Injury ===
RSI is thought to result from a continual risk of exceeding limits of “cumulative trauma load
RSI is thought to result from a continual risk of exceeding limits of “cumulative trauma load
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=== Motor Control ===
=== Motor Control ===
 +
(source text not yet available in our project folder)
 +
 +
=== Relevant developments at Eindhoven University of Technology ===
=== Relevant developments at Eindhoven University of Technology ===
 +
(source text not yet available in our project folder)
== Reference Lists ==
== Reference Lists ==

Revision as of 16:50, 9 September 2018

Contents

Introduction

This page contains the initial State-of-the-Art literature study performed by group 2 for the course Project Robots Everywhere (0LAUK0). The main research subject was broken down into several relevant topics. This literature study is divided into the following relevant topics:

  • Sensor Technology
  • User Interface
  • Repetitive Strain Injury
  • Dutch Arbo legislation
  • Existing products
  • Motor Control
  • Relevant developments at Eindhoven University of Technology

Each topic has a summary and a list of references.


Summaries

Sensor Technology

Biometric authentication is the security process using the unique biological characteristics of a person to verify their identity. This form of authentication is used in information security, law enforcement, the daily life of individuals etc.

The most commonly used forms of biometric authentication are fingerprint scanning and facial recognition. [1][2] An example of fingerprint scanning can be found in smartphones, millions of people worldwide unlock their smartphone every day using fingerprint scanning. Ease of access and speed are the biggest reasons behind the increasing use of this form of biometric authentication. [3] An example of facial recognition can be found in Apple’s new flagship smartphone, the iPhone X. The iPhone X uses Face ID, a facial recognition system using more than 30000 infrared dots to accurately map and read faces for authentication and can adapt to the changes of the user’s face over time. [4]

There exist two types of fingerprint scanning techniques, offline scanning and live-scanning. Offline scanning uses fingerprints that are obtained on paper to create a digital image. [5] Live-scanning uses an electronic fingerprint scanner to obtain these fingerprints, this is also the scanning technique used for biometric authentication on smartphones. Live-scanning can be done using three kinds of sensors: optical, solid-state and ultrasound. Optical sensors are by far the most common and capture the fingerprints by measuring the differences in the amount of reflected light from each position in the fingertip and constructs an image based on the reflected light. Solid-state sensors measure differences in physical properties, for differences in electrical current in the different parts of the finger, the closer the finger is to the sensor the higher the capacitance is, in the finger to construct an image of the fingerprint. [6] Ultrasound sensors, as the name implies utilises ultrasound to map the fingerprint. Using pulses of ultrasound and measuring where the pulse of ultrasound is absorbed or bounced back an depiction of the fingerprint is created. [7]

A form of authentication that provides ease of access, speed and familiarity would be of great use to an RSI preventative AI. Biometric authentication has all these qualities, making it an ideal choice of authentication for the AI.


User Interface

(source text not yet available in our project folder)


Repetitive Strain Injury

RSI is thought to result from a continual risk of exceeding limits of “cumulative trauma load tolerance”. Painful stimulations also produce neuroplastic changes in the spinal and supraspinal nociceptive systems. RSI pain may be felt as a task-related response. (source 1)

In order to design a successful RSI prevention program, strategies have to be implemented to maintain compliance between the client and the program. Such a program can have an impact on the frequency of stretch breaks. (source 2)

RSI is a painful result of the inappropriate implementation of information technology in offices. However, RSI is also a management and organisational problem which should be approached in terms of an explicit health and safety policy. (source 3)

RSI is one of the main causes of lost working days. RSI requires a large amount of changes and preventive actions. (source 4)

The current strategy for RSI prevention breakdowns in the process is a risk factor for RSI. Technological systems are a potentially promising means for accident prevention, monitoring, detection and post-incident learning. (source 5)

Considering warnings, a computer warning led leads to the most correct position adjustments. The effect of the computer warning is caused by heightened attention for intervention. Warnings may be able to successfully replace educational brochures to produce behavioural changes. (source 6)


Dutch Arbo legislation

We are interested in researching RSI with respect to working life in the Netherlands. As such it seemed useful to include Dutch legislation regarding working conditions in the state-of-the-art literature study, as our design/prototype would have to comply with this legislation. In order to keep employees safe, the Dutch government introduced the working-conditions-legislation; the Arbowet (Arbowetgeving, n.d.). The Arbowet consists of three levels of legislation. The Arbowet itself offers the basis of the legislation, and contains general conditions for all working places. The Arbobesluit implements the core of the Arbowet into rules that both employers and employees should obey. The last level consists of the Arboregeling, which builds on the Arbobesluit and offers concrete regulation. The Arboregeling includes demands for work equipment.

Employers should minimize health risks for their employees, this can be done by replacing work equipment by more work-friendly alternatives (e.g. replace loud machinery with a quieter model). The working space should adapt as much as possible to the individual properties of the employees. The employers should also minimize the amount of monotonous work. Employees should also provide adequate training to their employees to for instance make better use of the work equipment.


Existing products

The Dutch RSI Vereniging is an association that focusses on providing information about the effects of RSI and how it can be prevented. They also provide a rundown of possibilities regarding the setup of the working environment in order to prevent RSI (inrichting werkplek, n.d.). Backshop is a distributor of ergonomic office space working equipment. By investigating their catalogue it appears that ergonomic office design focusses on using the following equipment:

  • using ergonomically shaped mice and keyboards,
  • using fully adjustable office chairs,
  • using height adjustable desks, and
  • mounting monitors to movable monitor arms


The Altwork Station (Specs, n.d.) integrates a monitor, desk and chair into a single unit. Every component is hinged, meaning that the user can adjust all components of the desk when the integrated seat is reclined. The user can specify 5 desks positions that can be stored, which allows the desk to change layout (e.g. from standing desk to sitting desk) with the use of a single button. Obutto is another company that distributes all-in-one ergonomic desks. Their design focusses on having a reclined chair, which spreads the user’s weight over their lower back and thighs. Their design features multiple movable platforms, which can be used to place a keyboard or mouse. These platforms can also be swiveled such that they can be used to make notes or draw. An early ergonomic desk design can be found in a patent by Nagy & Foris (1992), which describes a height adjustable desk with a rotating keyboard assembly. According to Nagy et al., their design allows the user to use their keyboard in the most comfortable way. They note that the cervical spine should be relaxed, and the computer monitor should be at eye level (Nagy & Foris, 1992, col. 7).


Motor Control

(source text not yet available in our project folder)


Relevant developments at Eindhoven University of Technology

(source text not yet available in our project folder)

Reference Lists

Sensor Technology

User Interface

Repetitive Strain Injury

  1. Sorgatz, H. (2002). Repetitive Strain Injuries. Forearm Pain Caused by Tissue Responses to Repetitive Strain.
  2. Monsey, M., Ioffe, I., Beatini, A., Lukey, B., Santiago, A., James, A.B. (2003). Increasing Compliance with Stretch Breaks in Computer Users Through Reminder Software.
  3. Khilji, N., Smithson, S. (1994). Repetitive Strain Injury in the UK: Soft Tissues and Hard Issues.
  4. Maciel, R.H. (2000). RSI Prevention: A Brazilian Negotiated Program.
  5. Teng, Y.C., Ward, J., Horberry, T., Clarkson, P.J., Patil, V. (2015). Retained Surgical Instruments: Using Technology for Prevention and Detection.
  6. Visschers, V.H.M., Ruiter, R.A.C., Kools, M., Meertens, R.M. (2004). The Effects of Warnings and an Educational Brochure on Computer Working Posture: A Test of the C-HIP Model in the Context of RSI-relevant Behaviour.


Dutch Arbo legislation

  1. Arbowetgeving. (n.d.). Retrieved from [1]
  2. Arbeidsomstandighedenwet. (2018, January 1). Retrieved from [2]
  3. Arbeidsomstandighedenbesluit. (2018, July 18). Retrieved from [3]
  4. Arbeidsomstandighedenregeling. (2018, August 21). Retrieved from [4]


Existing products

  1. Inrichting werkplek. (n.d.). Retrieved from [5]
  2. Backshop producten. (n.d.). Retrieved from [6]
  3. Specs. (n.d.). Retrieved from [7]
  4. Obutto. (n.d.). Retrieved from [8]
  5. Nagy, M.K., Foris, V.G. (1992). U.S. Patent No. US5174223A. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent andTrademark Office. Retrieved from [9]


Motor Control

Disclaimer These references will be replaced by precise references of relevant lectures within these courses as the design of the project evolves

  1. TU/e 4DB00 (2016-2) Dynamics and control of mechanical systems course materials
  2. TU/e 4GB20 OGO Robot-arm course materials


Relevant developments at Eindhoven University of Technology

Contactperson at TU/e: Eric van de Sande, Arbo- en milieucoördinator. Faculteit. WTB,EE

  1. Konings, H. (2018). Contouren werkplekken worden zichtbaar in Atlas. Retrieved from [10]
  2. Atlas facts and Figures. (n.d.). Retrieved from [Atlas-feiten2.pdf]
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